JacksonSethiDellwikEtAl2021

Référence

Jackson, T.D., Sethi, S., Dellwik, E., Angelou, N., Bunce, A., Van Emmerik, T., Duperat, M., Ruel, J.-C., Wellpott, A., Van Bloem, S., Achim, A., Kane, B., Ciruzzi, D.M., Loheide Ii, S.P., James, K., Burcham, D., Moore, J., Schindler, D., Kolbe, S., Wiegmann, K., Rudnicki, M., Lieffers, V.J., Selker, J., Gougherty, A.V., Newson, T., Koeser, A., Miesbauer, J., Samelson, R., Wagner, J., Ambrose, A.R., Detter, A., Rust, S., Coomes, D., Gardiner, B. (2021) The motion of trees in the wind: A data synthesis. Biogeosciences, 18(13):4059-4072. (Scopus )

Résumé

Interactions between wind and trees control energy exchanges between the atmosphere and forest canopies. This energy exchange can lead to the widespread damage of trees, and wind is a key disturbance agent in many of the world's forests. However, most research on this topic has focused on conifer plantations, where risk management is economically important, rather than broadleaf forests, which dominate the forest carbon cycle. This study brings together tree motion time-series data to systematically evaluate the factors influencing tree responses to wind loading, including data from both broadleaf and coniferous trees in forests and open environments. We found that the two most descriptive features of tree motion were (a) the fundamental frequency, which is a measure of the speed at which a tree sways and is strongly related to tree height, and (b) the slope of the power spectrum, which is related to the efficiency of energy transfer from wind to trees. Intriguingly, the slope of the power spectrum was found to remain constant from medium to high wind speeds for all trees in this study. This suggests that, contrary to some predictions, damping or amplification mechanisms do not change dramatically at high wind speeds, and therefore wind damage risk is related, relatively simply, to wind speed. Conifers from forests were distinct from broadleaves in terms of their response to wind loading. Specifically, the fundamental frequency of forest conifers was related to their size according to the cantilever beam model (i.e. vertically distributed mass), whereas broadleaves were better approximated by the simple pendulum model (i.e. dominated by the crown). Forest conifers also had a steeper slope of the power spectrum. We interpret these finding as being strongly related to tree architecture; i.e. conifers generally have a simple shape due to their apical dominance, whereas broadleaves exhibit a much wider range of architectures with more dominant crowns. © 2021 Toby D. Jackson et al.

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@ARTICLE { JacksonSethiDellwikEtAl2021,
    AUTHOR = { Jackson, T.D. and Sethi, S. and Dellwik, E. and Angelou, N. and Bunce, A. and Van Emmerik, T. and Duperat, M. and Ruel, J.-C. and Wellpott, A. and Van Bloem, S. and Achim, A. and Kane, B. and Ciruzzi, D.M. and Loheide Ii, S.P. and James, K. and Burcham, D. and Moore, J. and Schindler, D. and Kolbe, S. and Wiegmann, K. and Rudnicki, M. and Lieffers, V.J. and Selker, J. and Gougherty, A.V. and Newson, T. and Koeser, A. and Miesbauer, J. and Samelson, R. and Wagner, J. and Ambrose, A.R. and Detter, A. and Rust, S. and Coomes, D. and Gardiner, B. },
    JOURNAL = { Biogeosciences },
    TITLE = { The motion of trees in the wind: A data synthesis },
    YEAR = { 2021 },
    NOTE = { cited By 0 },
    NUMBER = { 13 },
    PAGES = { 4059-4072 },
    VOLUME = { 18 },
    ABSTRACT = { Interactions between wind and trees control energy exchanges between the atmosphere and forest canopies. This energy exchange can lead to the widespread damage of trees, and wind is a key disturbance agent in many of the world's forests. However, most research on this topic has focused on conifer plantations, where risk management is economically important, rather than broadleaf forests, which dominate the forest carbon cycle. This study brings together tree motion time-series data to systematically evaluate the factors influencing tree responses to wind loading, including data from both broadleaf and coniferous trees in forests and open environments. We found that the two most descriptive features of tree motion were (a) the fundamental frequency, which is a measure of the speed at which a tree sways and is strongly related to tree height, and (b) the slope of the power spectrum, which is related to the efficiency of energy transfer from wind to trees. Intriguingly, the slope of the power spectrum was found to remain constant from medium to high wind speeds for all trees in this study. This suggests that, contrary to some predictions, damping or amplification mechanisms do not change dramatically at high wind speeds, and therefore wind damage risk is related, relatively simply, to wind speed. Conifers from forests were distinct from broadleaves in terms of their response to wind loading. Specifically, the fundamental frequency of forest conifers was related to their size according to the cantilever beam model (i.e. vertically distributed mass), whereas broadleaves were better approximated by the simple pendulum model (i.e. dominated by the crown). Forest conifers also had a steeper slope of the power spectrum. We interpret these finding as being strongly related to tree architecture; i.e. conifers generally have a simple shape due to their apical dominance, whereas broadleaves exhibit a much wider range of architectures with more dominant crowns. © 2021 Toby D. Jackson et al. },
    AFFILIATION = { Department of Plant Sciences, University of CambridgeCB2 3EA, United Kingdom; Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde, 4000, Denmark; Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Connecticut, Mansfield, CT 06269, United States; Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 6708, Netherlands; Department of Wood and Forest Sciences, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada; Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF), Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 1, Freising, 85354, Germany; Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442, United States; Centre de Recherche sur les Matériaux Renouvelables, Département des Sciences du Bois et de la Forêt, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada; Department of Environmental Conservation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, United States; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, United States; School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3052, Australia; Centre for Urban Greenery and Ecology, National Parks Board, Singapore, 259569, Singapore; Timberlands Ltd., Rotorua3010, New Zealand; Environmental Meteorology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, D-79085, Germany; Argus Electronic GmbH, Erich-Schlesinger-Str. 49d, Rostock, 18059, Germany; College of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, United States; Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada; Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, United States; Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Western University, London, ON N6G 1G8, Canada; Department of Environmental Horticulture, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainsville, 32607, United States; Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 14625 County Road 672, Wimauma, FL 33598, United States; The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL 60532, United States; College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, United States; Oregon Research Electronics, Tangent, OR 97389, United States; Department of Integrative Biology, UC Berkeley, CA, Berkeley, 94720-3140, United States; Brudi and Partner TreeConsult, Berengariastr. 9, Gauting, 82131, Germany; Faculty of Resource Management, University of Applied Science and Art, Göttingen, Germany; Institut Européen de la Forêt Cultivée, 69 route d'Arcachon, Cestas, 33612, France },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Article },
    DOI = { 10.5194/bg-18-4059-2021 },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85109388245&doi=10.5194%2fbg-18-4059-2021&partnerID=40&md5=6c61f5758115c12d0094727ee43307e2 },
}

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