HaleGardinerWellpottEtAl2012

Référence

Hale, S.E., Gardiner, B.A., Wellpott, A., Nicoll, B.C., Achim, A. (2012) Wind loading of trees: influence of tree size and competition. European Journal of Forest Research, 131(1):203-217.

Résumé

Wind damage to forests is an important ecological disturbance factor. At the same time, it can have serious economic consequences due to a reduction in timber production. Current models for predicting the risk of wind damage are useful, but generally only focus on the "mean" tree within uniform stands. This paper presents measurements made of wind loading on trees of different sizes within four forest stands of different structure and management history, but all well-acclimated to current wind conditions. Each tree demonstrated a linear relationship between the maximum hourly turning moment and the square of the average hourly wind speed at the canopy top; we defined this ratio (the gradient of the line M (max) vs. u (2)) as the turning moment coefficient (T (C)). T (C) was correlated with tree size, in a relationship that differed little between the four forest sites despite the differences between the stands. The relationship between T (C) and individual tree competition within each stand was investigated, using both distance-independent and distance-dependent competition indices. All sites showed decreasing T (C) with increasing competition. However, the relationships differed between sites and would also be expected to change through time for a single site. The distance-dependent indices offered no improvement over the simpler, non-spatial indices that required only a diameter distribution. We suggest how, subject to further work, the results presented could be applied to calculate the risk of wind damage to trees of different sizes within a forest stand, and how the risk of wind damage to individual trees might change in response to thinning.

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@ARTICLE { HaleGardinerWellpottEtAl2012,
    AUTHOR = { Hale, S.E. and Gardiner, B.A. and Wellpott, A. and Nicoll, B.C. and Achim, A. },
    TITLE = { Wind loading of trees: influence of tree size and competition },
    JOURNAL = { European Journal of Forest Research },
    YEAR = { 2012 },
    VOLUME = { 131 },
    PAGES = { 203-217 },
    NUMBER = { 1 },
    NOTE = { Hale, Sophie E. Gardiner, Barry A. Wellpott, Axel Nicoll, Bruce C. Achim, Alexis Si },
    ABSTRACT = { Wind damage to forests is an important ecological disturbance factor. At the same time, it can have serious economic consequences due to a reduction in timber production. Current models for predicting the risk of wind damage are useful, but generally only focus on the "mean" tree within uniform stands. This paper presents measurements made of wind loading on trees of different sizes within four forest stands of different structure and management history, but all well-acclimated to current wind conditions. Each tree demonstrated a linear relationship between the maximum hourly turning moment and the square of the average hourly wind speed at the canopy top; we defined this ratio (the gradient of the line M (max) vs. u (2)) as the turning moment coefficient (T (C)). T (C) was correlated with tree size, in a relationship that differed little between the four forest sites despite the differences between the stands. The relationship between T (C) and individual tree competition within each stand was investigated, using both distance-independent and distance-dependent competition indices. All sites showed decreasing T (C) with increasing competition. However, the relationships differed between sites and would also be expected to change through time for a single site. The distance-dependent indices offered no improvement over the simpler, non-spatial indices that required only a diameter distribution. We suggest how, subject to further work, the results presented could be applied to calculate the risk of wind damage to trees of different sizes within a forest stand, and how the risk of wind damage to individual trees might change in response to thinning. },
    OWNER = { amriv2 },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2012.06.28 },
}

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