NantelGagnonNault1996

Référence

Nantel, P., Gagnon, D. and Nault, A. (1996) Population viability analysis of American ginseng and wild leek harvested in stochastic environments. Conservation Biology, 10(2):608-621.

Résumé

Many populations of threatened American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) and vulnerable wild leek (Allium tricoccum) have declined and gone extinct because of overharvesting in Canada. We assessed the impact of harvesting on populations of these species in stochastically varying environments and estimated their extinction thresholds and minimum viable populations. With both species we used four transition matrices taken from the literature in stochastic population projections under various harvesting regimes. For American gingseng the mean population growth rate (??) declined with increasing harvesting rate (h) according to the number of years between harvests (tr), as -0.54 h tr-0.90. When plants with more than two leaves are harvested every 5 years, a harvest rate of approximately 30% was sufficient to bring the ?? below the equilibrium value of 1.0. Extinction thresholds, the minimum number of plants needed to rebuild a population, varied from 30 to 90 plants, and the minimum viable population size was estimated at 170 plants. Only a dozen populations known in Canada exceed 170 plants, so most populations could not support any harvesting without serious threats to their long-term persistence. For wild leek, two harvesting strategies were identified from confiscated, illegal harvests from Gatineau Park (Que?bec): (1) "choosy" harvesters collect fewer but larger bulbs, and (2) "busy" harvesters collect numerous but smaller bulbs. These data allowed simulations of more-realistic harvesting strategies. The rate of the decline ?? along the harvest gradient was faster for wild leek than for ginseng and varied with harvesting strategies. At harvesting rates between 1 and 8% the probability that ?? falls below the equilibrium value was less than 5%. The extinction threshold of wild leek was estimated at 140-480 plants and the minimum viable population at 300-1030 plants, according to the threshold chosen. Remnant wild leek populations in Que?bec rarely contain more than a few hundred plants, indicating the serious threat commercial harvesting represents for this species. For both species we found that the whims of a stochastically varying environment significantly reduce sustainable harvest levels.

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@ARTICLE { NantelGagnonNault1996,
    AUTHOR = { Nantel, P. and Gagnon, D. and Nault, A. },
    TITLE = { Population viability analysis of American ginseng and wild leek harvested in stochastic environments },
    JOURNAL = { Conservation Biology },
    YEAR = { 1996 },
    VOLUME = { 10 },
    PAGES = { 608-621 },
    NUMBER = { 2 },
    NOTE = { 08888892 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 50 Export Date: 25 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: CBIOE Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Nantel, P.; Grp. de Rech. en Ecologie Forestiere; Univ. du Quebec a Montreal; C. P. 8888, succ. Centre-Ville Montre?al, Que. 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Montre?al, Montre?al; Nault, A., Gagnon, D., Seasonal biomass and nutrient allocation patterns in wild leek (Allium tricoccum Ait.), a spring geophyte (1988) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 115, pp. 45-54; Nault, A., Gagnon, D., Ramet demography of Allium tricoccum, a spring ephemeral, perennial forest herb (1993) Journal of Ecology, 81, pp. 101-119; Pinard, M., Impacts of stem harvesting on populations Iriartea deltoidea (Palmae) in an extractive reserve in Acre, Brazil (1993) Biotropica, 25, pp. 2-14; Schemske, D.W., Husband, B.C., Ruckelshaus, M.H., Goodwillie, C., Parker, I.M., Bishop, J.G., Evaluating approaches to the conservation of rare and endangered plants (1994) Ecology, 75, pp. 584-606; Schreiner, J., Root of success (1994) Canadian Geographic, 94, pp. 42-48. , Nov.-Dec; Shaffer, M.L., Minimum population sizes for species conservation (1981) BioScience, 31, pp. 131-134; Silvertown, J., Franco, M., Pisanty, I., Mendoza, A., Comparative plant demography: Relative importance of life-cycle components to the finite rate of increase in woody and herbaceous perennials (1993) Journal of Ecology, 81, pp. 465-476; Small, E., Catling, P.M., Haber, E., Poorly known economic plants of Canada. 4. 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    ABSTRACT = { Many populations of threatened American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) and vulnerable wild leek (Allium tricoccum) have declined and gone extinct because of overharvesting in Canada. We assessed the impact of harvesting on populations of these species in stochastically varying environments and estimated their extinction thresholds and minimum viable populations. With both species we used four transition matrices taken from the literature in stochastic population projections under various harvesting regimes. For American gingseng the mean population growth rate (??) declined with increasing harvesting rate (h) according to the number of years between harvests (tr), as -0.54 h tr-0.90. When plants with more than two leaves are harvested every 5 years, a harvest rate of approximately 30% was sufficient to bring the ?? below the equilibrium value of 1.0. Extinction thresholds, the minimum number of plants needed to rebuild a population, varied from 30 to 90 plants, and the minimum viable population size was estimated at 170 plants. Only a dozen populations known in Canada exceed 170 plants, so most populations could not support any harvesting without serious threats to their long-term persistence. For wild leek, two harvesting strategies were identified from confiscated, illegal harvests from Gatineau Park (Que?bec): (1) "choosy" harvesters collect fewer but larger bulbs, and (2) "busy" harvesters collect numerous but smaller bulbs. These data allowed simulations of more-realistic harvesting strategies. The rate of the decline ?? along the harvest gradient was faster for wild leek than for ginseng and varied with harvesting strategies. At harvesting rates between 1 and 8% the probability that ?? falls below the equilibrium value was less than 5%. The extinction threshold of wild leek was estimated at 140-480 plants and the minimum viable population at 300-1030 plants, according to the threshold chosen. Remnant wild leek populations in Que?bec rarely contain more than a few hundred plants, indicating the serious threat commercial harvesting represents for this species. For both species we found that the whims of a stochastically varying environment significantly reduce sustainable harvest levels. },
    KEYWORDS = { American ginseng local extinction population decline population viability analysis wild leek Canada Allium tricoccum Panax quinquefolium },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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