Greene2005

Référence

Greene, D.F. (2005) The role of abscission in long-distance seed dispersal by the wind. Ecology, 86(11):3105-3110.

Résumé

It has become clear that long-distance seed dispersal plays a crucial role in plant metapopulation persistence and response to rapid climate change. Recent studies of the role of convective vs. shear-generated updrafts in prompting long-distance dispersal using Taraxacum officinale as an example, suggest that (1) the probability of abscission is independent of horizontal speed and thus (2) shear-induced vertical turbulence is low, and so by default the bulk of updrafts must be due to convection, especially in open habitats such as grasslands. In this paper, I directly test the first hypothesis, and indirectly test the second via a modeling exercise. Employing shorter averaging times than used previously, it is shown that abscission in T. officinale is controlled by horizontal wind speed. Indeed, it is related to the square of the wind speed, as might be expected if drag is the motive force. I also show that this augmentation of wind speed by the abscission bias should sufficiently increase the shear-induced turbulence so that shear rivals convection as a source of updrafts in open habitats. In conclusion, long-distance dispersal by wind will not be successfully modeled until we couple the abscission and subsequent dispersal processes. © 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

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@ARTICLE { Greene2005,
    AUTHOR = { Greene, D.F. },
    TITLE = { The role of abscission in long-distance seed dispersal by the wind },
    JOURNAL = { Ecology },
    YEAR = { 2005 },
    VOLUME = { 86 },
    PAGES = { 3105-3110 },
    NUMBER = { 11 },
    NOTE = { 00129658 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 3 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: ECOLA Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Greene, D.F.; Departments of Geography and Biology; Concordia University; 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. Montreal, Que. H2G 1M8, Canada References: Ford, R.H., Sharik, T.L., Feret, P.P., Seed dispersal of the endangered Virginia round-leaf birch (Betula uber) (1983) Forest Ecology and Management, 6, pp. 115-128; Greene, D.F., Calogeropoulos, C., Measuring and modeling seed dispersal of terrestrial plants (2003) Dispersal Ecology, pp. 3-23. , J. M. Bullock, R. E. Kenward, and R. S. Hails, editors. Blackwell Press, Oxford, UK; Greene, D.E., Johnson, E.A., Fruit abscission in Acer saccharinum with reference to seed dispersal (1992) Canadian Journal of Botany, 70, pp. 2277-2283; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Long-distance wind dispersal of tree seeds (1995) Canadian Journal of Botany, 73, pp. 339-347; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Wind dispersal of seeds from a forest into a clearing (1996) Ecology, 77, pp. 595-609; Harris, A.S., (1969) Ripening and Dispersal of a Bumper Western Hemlock-sitka Spruce Seed Crop in Southeast Alaska, , U.S. Forest Service Note PNW-105. U.S. Forest Service, Portland, Oregon, USA; Higgins, S.I., Nathan, R., Cain, M.L., Are long-distance dispersal events in plants really usually caused by nonstandard means of dispersal? (2003) Ecology, 84, pp. 1945-1956; Higgins, S.I., Richardson, D.M., Predicting plant migration rates in a changing world: The role of long-distance dispersal (1999) American Naturalist, 153, pp. 464-475; Horn, H.S., Nathan, R., Kaplan, N.L., Long-distance dispersal of tree seeds by wind (2001) Ecological Research, 16, pp. 877-885; Levin, S.A., Muller-Landau, H.C., Nathan, R., Chave, J., The ecology and evolution of seed dispersal: A theoretical perspective (2003) Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, pp. 575-604; Nathan, R., Katul, G.G., Horn, H.S., Thomas, S.M., Oren, R., Avissar, R., Pacala, S.W., Levin, S.A., Mechanisms of long-distance dispersal by wind (2002) Nature, 418, pp. 409-413; Nathan, R., Perry, G., Cronin, J.T., Strand, A.E., Cain, M.L., Methods for estimating long-distance dispersal (2003) Oikos, 103, pp. 261-273; Nathan, R., Safriel, U.N., Noy-Meir, I., Field validation and sensitivity analysis of a mechanistic model for tree seed dispersal by wind (2001) Ecology, 82, pp. 374-388; Nathan, R., Safriel, U.N., Noy-Meir, I., Schiller, G., Spatiotemporal variation in seed dispersal and recruitment near and far from Pinus halepensis trees (2000) Ecology, 81, pp. 2156-2169; Okubo, A., Levin, S.A., A theoretical framework for the analysis of data on the wind dispersal of seeds and pollen (1989) Ecology, 70, pp. 329-338; Schippers, P., Jongejans, E., Release thresholds strongly determine the range of seed dispersal by wind (2005) Ecological Modelling, 185, pp. 93-103; Soons, M.B., Heil, G.W., Nathan, R., Katul, G.G., Determinants of long-distance seed dispersal by wind in grasslands (2004) Ecology, 85, pp. 3056-3068; Tackenberg, O., Modeling long-distance dispersal of plant diaspores by wind (2003) Ecological Monographs, 73, pp. 173-189; Tackenberg, O., Poschlod, P., Kahmen, S., Dandelion seed dispersal: The horizontal wind speed does not matter for long-distance dispersal - It is updraft! (2003) Plant Biology, 5, pp. 451-454; Trindade, M., (2004) Modelling the Dispersal of Picea Mariana Pollen at Arctic Treeline, , Thesis. Biology Department, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. },
    ABSTRACT = { It has become clear that long-distance seed dispersal plays a crucial role in plant metapopulation persistence and response to rapid climate change. Recent studies of the role of convective vs. shear-generated updrafts in prompting long-distance dispersal using Taraxacum officinale as an example, suggest that (1) the probability of abscission is independent of horizontal speed and thus (2) shear-induced vertical turbulence is low, and so by default the bulk of updrafts must be due to convection, especially in open habitats such as grasslands. In this paper, I directly test the first hypothesis, and indirectly test the second via a modeling exercise. Employing shorter averaging times than used previously, it is shown that abscission in T. officinale is controlled by horizontal wind speed. Indeed, it is related to the square of the wind speed, as might be expected if drag is the motive force. I also show that this augmentation of wind speed by the abscission bias should sufficiently increase the shear-induced turbulence so that shear rivals convection as a source of updrafts in open habitats. In conclusion, long-distance dispersal by wind will not be successfully modeled until we couple the abscission and subsequent dispersal processes. © 2005 by the Ecological Society of America. },
    KEYWORDS = { Anemochory Dandelion Seed abscission Seed dispersal Taraxacum officinale Turbulence Wind anemochory habitat type turbulence wind Taraxacum officinale },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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