GreeneJohnson1996

Référence

Greene, D.F. and Johnson, E.A. (1996) Wind dispersal of seeds from a forest into a clearing. Ecology, 77(2):595-609.

Résumé

Although there are many studies of wind dispersal of seeds from a forest into an adjacent clearing, no physical model has yet been advanced. The model constructed here calculates the trajectories of seeds from individual trees in the area source to a line of seed traps (in the clearing) oriented perpendicular to the forest edge. The model uses a log-normal distribution of horizontal wind velocities at a nearby reference station to evaluate wind velocities at any point in the forest and clearing as a function of both height above the ground and distance from the forest edge. The model predicts that (1) the slope of the area source dispersal curve (seed density vs. leeward distance) approximates a negative exponential; and (2) the great majority of seed deposition in the clearing is contributed by source trees lying within a few tree heights of the forest edge. An evaluation of previously published empirical data shows that the area source model adequately characterizes the decline in seed density with leeward distance.

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@ARTICLE { GreeneJohnson1996,
    AUTHOR = { Greene, D.F. and Johnson, E.A. },
    TITLE = { Wind dispersal of seeds from a forest into a clearing },
    JOURNAL = { Ecology },
    YEAR = { 1996 },
    VOLUME = { 77 },
    PAGES = { 595-609 },
    NUMBER = { 2 },
    NOTE = { 00129658 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 74 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: ECOLA Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Greene, D.F.; Department of Geography; Department of Biology; Concordia University Montreal, Que. H3G 4M8, Canada References: Alexander, R.R., Edminster, C.B., Engelmann spruce seed dispersal in the Central Rocky Mountains (1983) Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Note, RM-424; Alexander, R.R., Watkins, R.K., Edminster, C.B., Engelmann spruce seed production on the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado (1982) Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Note, RM-419; Allen, L.H., Turbulence and wind speed spectra within a Japanese larch plantation (1968) Journal of Applied Meteorology, 7, pp. 73-78; Barrett, J.W., Record of ponderosa pine seed flight (1966) Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Note, PNW-38; Bjorkbom, J.C., Production and germination of paper birch seed and its dispersal into a forest opening (1971) Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Paper, NE-209; Bormann, F.H., Likens, G.E., (1979) Pattern and Process in A Forested Ecosystem, , Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA; Burton, P.J., (1989) Constraints to Tree Invasion on A Nutrient Rich Site during Old-field Succession, , Ph.D. dissertation. University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA; Caborn, J.M., Shelterbelts and microclimate (1957) British Forestry Commission, Bulletin, 29; Crossley, D.I., The production and dispersal of lodge-pole pine seed (1955) Forest Research Division, Department of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources, Forestry Branch, Ottawa, Canada, Technical Note, 25; Dumbauld, R.K., Cionco, R.M., A method for characterizing turbulence and wind speed profiles within and above vegetative canopies (1985) 17th Conference of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology and Seventh Conference of Biometeorology and Aerobiology, pp. 120-123. , May 21-24, 1985. American Meteorological Society, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Flemming, G., Die Windgeschwindigkeit auf waldungebenen freiflachen (1968) Archiv Fu?r Forstwesen, 17, pp. 5-16; (1969) The Velocity of Wind in Clearings Surrounded by Forests, , English translation from the Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Canada, OOFF-60; Fowells, H.A., Silvics of forest trees of the United States (1965) United States Department of Agriculture Handbook Number 271., 271; Franklin, J.F., Smith, C.E., Seeding habits of upper-slope tree species. II. Dispersal of mountain hemlock seedcrop on a clear-cut (1973) Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Note, PNW-214; Franklin, J.F., Smith, C.E., Seeding habits of upper-slope tree species. III. Dispersal of white and shasta red fir seeds on a clear cut (1974) Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Note, PNW-215; Ghersa, C.M., Roush, M.L., Searching for solutions to weed problems (1993) BioScience, 43, pp. 104-109; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., A model of wind dispersal of winged or plumed seeds (1989) Ecology, 70, pp. 339-347; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Fruit abscission in Acer saccharinum with reference to seed dispersal (1992) Canadian Journal of Botany, 70, pp. 2277-2283; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Can the variation in samara mass and terminal velocity on an individual plant affect the distribution of dispersal distances? (1992) American Naturalist, 139, pp. 825-838; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Estimating the mean annual seed production of trees (1994) Ecology, 75, pp. 642-647; Halldin, S., Leaf and bark area distribution in a pine forest (1985) The Forest-atmosphere Interaction, pp. 39-58. , B. A. Hutchison and B. B. Hicks, editors. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; Hanski, I., Gilpin, M.E., Metapopulation dynamics: Brief history and conceptual domain (1991) Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 42, pp. 3-16; Hard, J.S., Vertical distribution of cones in red pine (1964) Lake States Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Note, LS-51; Hare, F.K., Thomas, M.K., (1974) Climate Canada, , J. Wiley \& Sons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Howard, E.W., Dissemination and viability of seed from upland black spruce in central Newfoundland (1970) Department of Fisheries and Forestry, Ottawa, Canada, Monthly Research Notes, 26 (3), p. 29; Landsberg, J.J., James, G.B., Wind profiles in plant canopies: Studies on an analytical model (1971) Journal of Applied Ecology, 8, pp. 729-741; Levin, D.A., Immigration in plants: An exercise in the subjunctive (1984) Perspectives on Plant Population Ecology, pp. 242-260. , R. Dirzo and J. Sarukhan, editors. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA; Luna, R.E., Church, H.W., Estimation of long-term concentrations using a "universal" wind speed distribution (1974) Journal of Applied Meteorology, 13, pp. 910-916; Lyons, L.A., The seed production capacity and efficiency of red pine cones (Pinus resinosa Ait.) (1956) Canadian Journal of Botany, 34, pp. 27-36; McCaughey, W.W., Schmidt, W., Shearer, R.C., Seed dispersal characteristics of conifers in the inland mountain west (1986) Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, General Technical Report, INT-203, pp. 50-62. , Proceedings of the Symposium on Conifer Tree Seed in the Intermountain West; Nageli, W., Die Windbremsung durch einen gro?sseren Waldcomplex: Ein Beitrag zum Problem der Schutzstreifenbreite bei Windschutzanlagen (1953) Pre-issue of the Proceedings of the Congress of the Union of Forest Research Organizations, (2), pp. 240-246. , Rome, Section II. International Union of Forest Research Organizations, Florence, Italy; Oke, T.R., (1978) Boundary Layer Climates, , Methuen, London; Pasquill, F., Smith, F.B., (1983) Atmospheric Diffusion. Third Edition, , John Wiley \& Sons, New York, New York, USA; Pickett, S.T.A., White, P.S., (1985) The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics, , Academic Press, New York, New York, USA; Primack, R.B., Miao, S.L., Dispersal can limit local plant distribution (1992) Conservation Biology, 6, pp. 513-515; Randall, A.G., Seed dispersal into two spruce-fir clearcuts in eastern Maine (1974) Research in the Life Sciences, 21, pp. 1-15; Raupach, M.R., Thom, A.S., Turbulence in and above plant canopies (1981) Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 13, pp. 97-129; Raynor, G.S., Wind and temperature structure in a coniferous forest and a contiguous field (1971) Forest Science, 17, pp. 351-363; Roe, A.L., Seed dispersal in a bumper spruce seed year (1967) Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Ogden, Utah, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Paper, INT-39; Ronco, F., Engelmann spruce seed dispersal and seedling establishment in clear-cut forest openings in Colorado - A progress report (1970) Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Note, RM-168; Shmida, A., Ellner, S., Coexistence of plant species with similar niches (1984) Vegetatio, 58, pp. 29-55; Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, W.G., (1980) Statistical Methods. Seventh Edition, , Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA; Squillace, A.E., Engelmann spruce seed dispersal into a clear-cut area (1954) Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Ogden, Utah, United States Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, Research Note, INT-II; Stewart, R.E., Atmospheric diffusion of particulate matter released from an elevated continuous source (1968) Journal of Applied Meteorology, 7, pp. 425-432; Walker, E.R., A particulate diffusion experiment (1965) Journal of Applied Meteorology, 4, pp. 614-621; Zasada, J.C., Lorig, D., Observations on primary dispersal of white spruce, Picea glauca, seed (1983) Canadian Field-Naturalist, 97, pp. 104-106. },
    ABSTRACT = { Although there are many studies of wind dispersal of seeds from a forest into an adjacent clearing, no physical model has yet been advanced. The model constructed here calculates the trajectories of seeds from individual trees in the area source to a line of seed traps (in the clearing) oriented perpendicular to the forest edge. The model uses a log-normal distribution of horizontal wind velocities at a nearby reference station to evaluate wind velocities at any point in the forest and clearing as a function of both height above the ground and distance from the forest edge. The model predicts that (1) the slope of the area source dispersal curve (seed density vs. leeward distance) approximates a negative exponential; and (2) the great majority of seed deposition in the clearing is contributed by source trees lying within a few tree heights of the forest edge. An evaluation of previously published empirical data shows that the area source model adequately characterizes the decline in seed density with leeward distance. },
    KEYWORDS = { Area source dispersal curve Clearcuts Micrometeorological dispersal model Seed dispersal Seed traps Small particle dispersal model Terminal velocity Wind dispersal Wind profiles forest forest clearing modelling seed dispersal wind dispersal },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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