GreeneJohnson2004

Référence

Greene, D.F. and Johnson, E.A. (2004) Modelling the temporal variation in the seed production of North American trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34(1):65-75.

Résumé

Many aspects of temporal variation in tree seed production (e.g., the proability distribution, periodicity, unimodality) are poorly understood. In this paper, we used 32 annual seed production records from 22 species to show that there are no discernible endogenous cycles, and there is a modest (but seldom significant) tendency for a high seed production year to be followed by an unusually low production year. Finally, we found that all of the records conformed to a single lognormal probability distribution, although our ability to discriminate among species, given short and extremely variable records, is admittedly very limited. We used the lognormal to develop the distribution of the sums of local seed production events (summed across 4 years) as an aid in predicting postharvest or postfire tree regeneration success. Our conclusion is that reliable (defined as 90% of the time) adequate stocking at the edge of an area source requires that the species of interest must comprise a very large fraction of the total basal area per area. Indeed, if the species constitutes less than about 50% of the source, neither burns nor even very narrow strip cuts will be reliably stocked.

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@ARTICLE { GreeneJohnson2004,
    AUTHOR = { Greene, D.F. and Johnson, E.A. },
    TITLE = { Modelling the temporal variation in the seed production of North American trees },
    JOURNAL = { Canadian Journal of Forest Research },
    YEAR = { 2004 },
    VOLUME = { 34 },
    PAGES = { 65-75 },
    NUMBER = { 1 },
    NOTE = { 00455067 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 2 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: CJFRA doi: 10.1139/x03-188 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Greene, D.F.; Departments of Geography and Biology; Grp. Rech. Ecologie Forestiere I.; Concordia University; 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West Montre?al, Que. H3G 1M8, Canada; email: greene@alcor.concordia.ca References: Alexander, R.R., Watkins, R.K., Edminster, C.B., Engelmann spruce seed production on the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado (1982) U.S. For. Serv. Res. Note RM-419; Arlidge, J.W.C., (1967) The Durability of Scarified Seedbeds for Spruce Regeneration, , British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. Res. Note 42; Caron, G.E., Powell, G.R., Patterns of seed-cone and pollen-cone product ion in young Picea mariana trees (1989) Can. J. For. Res., 19, pp. 359-364; Charron, I., Greene, D.F., Post-fire seedbeds and tree establishment in the southern mixedwood boreal forest (2002) Can. J. For. Res., 32, pp. 1607-1615; Coates, K.D., Haeussler, S., Lindeburgh, S., Pojar, R., Stock, A.J., (1994) Ecology and Silviculture of Interior Spruce in British Columbia, , British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, Victoria, B.C. For. Resour. Dev. Agree. Rep. 220; Curtis, J.T., (1959) The Vegetation of Wisconsin, , University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wis; Downs, A.A., McQuilken, W.E., Seed production in Southern Appalachian oaks (1944) J. For., 42, pp. 913-920; Eis, S., Cone production of Douglas fir and grand fir and its climatic requirements (1973) Can. J. For. Res., 3, pp. 61-70; Eis, S., Association of western white pine crops with weather variables (1976) Can. J. For. Res., 6, pp. 6-12; Fleming, R.L., Mossa, D.S., Direct seeding of black spruce in northwestern Ontario: Temporal changes in seedbed coverage and receptivity (1995) For. Chron., 71, pp. 219-227; Fleming, R.L., Mossa, D.S., Burns, T.R., Scarification trials for direct seeding on upland black spruce sites in Northwestern Ontario (1987) Can. For. Serv. Gt. Lakes For. Cent. Inf. Rep. O-X-385; Fowells, H.A., Schubert, G.H., Seed crops of forest trees in the Pine Region of California (1956) U.S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull., p. 1150; Franklin, J.F., Carkin, R., Booth, J., Seeding habits of upper-slope tree species. I. A 12-year record of cone production (1974) U.S. For. Serv. Res. Note PNW-213; Galipeau, C., Kneeshaw, D.D., Bergeron, Y., White spruce and balsam fir colonization of a site in the southeastern boreal forest as observed 68 years after fire (1997) Can. J. For. Res., 27, pp. 139-147; Graber, R.E., Leak, W.B., Seed fall in an old-growth northern hardwood forest (1992) U.S. For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-663; Greene, D.F., Sexual recruitment of trees in strip cuts in eastern Canada (2000) Can. J. For. Res., 30, pp. 1256-1263; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Estimating the mean annual seed production of trees (1994) Ecology, 75, pp. 642-647; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Wind dispersal of seeds from a forest into a clearing (1996) Ecology, 77, pp. 595-609; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Seed mass and juvenile survivorship of trees in clearings and shelterwoods (1998) Can. J. For. Res., 28, pp. 1307-1316; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Tree recruitment from burn edges (2000) Can. J. For. Res., 30, pp. 1264-1274; Greene, D.F., Zasada, J.C., Sirois, L., Kneeshaw, D., Morin, H., Charron, I., Simard, M.-J., A review of the regeneration of boreal forest trees (1999) Can. J. For. Res., 29, pp. 824-839; Greene, D.F., Kneeshaw, D., Messier, C., Doucet, R., Calogeropoulos, C., Coates, K.D., Cormier, D., Grover, G., White paper on silvicultural alternatives to clearcut plantations (2000) Internal White Paper Series, , Sustainable Forest Management Network (NCE), Edmonton, Alta; Groot, A., Adams, M.J., Direct seeding black spruce on peatlands: Fifth-year results (1994) For. Chron., 70, pp. 585-592; Gysel, L.W., A 10-year analysis of beechnut production and use in Michigan (1971) J. Wildl. Manage., 35, pp. 516-519; Herrera, C.M., Jordano, P., Guitian, J., Traveset, A., Annual variability in seed production by woody plants and the masting concept: Reassessment of principles and relationship to pollination and seed dispersal (1998) Am. Nat., 152, pp. 576-594; Janzen, D.H., Why bamboos wait so long to flower (1976) Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 7, pp. 347-391; Jemison, G.M., Korstian, C.F., Loblolly pine seed production and dispersal (1944) J. For., 42, pp. 734-741; Kelly, D., The evolutionary ecology of mast seeding (1994) Trends Ecol. Evol., 9, pp. 465-470; Koenig, W.D., Knops, J.M.H., Patterns of annual seed production by Northern Hemisphere trees: A global perspective (2000) Am. Nat., 155, pp. 59-69; Koenig, W.D., Mumme, R.L., Carmen, W.J., Stanback, M.T., Acorn production by oaks in central coastal California: Variation within and among years (1994) Ecology, 75, pp. 99-109; Lester, D.T., Variation in cone production of red pine in relation to weather (1967) Can. J. Bot., 45, pp. 1683-1691; Lutz, H.J., Ecological effects of forest fires in the interior of Alaska (1956) U.S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull., 1133; MacDonald, P.M., Estimating seed crops of conifer and hardwood species (1992) Can. J. For. Res., 22, pp. 832-838; Noel, J., (2001) Re?ge?ne?ration Forestie?re Apre?s Feu et Coupe de Re?cupe?ration Dans Le Secteur de Val-Paradis, Abitibi, , The?se de mai?trise, Universite? du Que?bec en Abitibi-Te?miscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Que; Norton, D.A., Kelly, D., Mast seeding over 33 years by Dacrydium cupressinum Lamb. (Rimu) (Podocarpaceae) in New Zealand: The importance of economies of scale (1988) Funct. Ecol., 2, pp. 399-408; Owens, J.N., The relative importance of initiation and early development on cone production in Douglas-fir (1969) Can. J. Bot., 47, pp. 1039-1049; Owens, J.N., Blake, M.D., Forest tree seed production (1985) Can. For. Serv. Petawawa Natl. For. Inst. Inf. Rep. PI-X-53; Peters, V.S., (2002) Keystone Processes Affect Succession in Boreal Mixedwoods - the Relationship between Masting in White Spruce and Fire History, , Ph.D. thesis, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta; Piovesan, G., Adams, J.M., Masting behaviour in beech: Linking reproduction and climatic variation (2001) Can. J. Bot., 79, pp. 1039-1047; Reukema, D.L., Seed production of Douglas fir increased by thinning (1961) U.S. For. Serv. Res. Note PNW-210; Robinson, P.J., Henderson-Sellers, A., (1999) Contemporary Climatology, , Longman Press, London, U.K; Roy, D.F., (1960) Douglas Fir Seed Dispersal in Northwestern California, , Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, Calif. Tech. Pap. 49; Schopmeyer, C.S., (1974) Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States, , U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C; Sork, V.L., Bramble, J., Sexton, O., Ecology of mast-fruiting in three species of Missouri oaks, Quecus alba, Q. rabra, Q. velutina (Fagaceae) (1993) Ecology, 74, pp. 528-541; Stewart, J.D., Hogg, E.H., Hurdle, P.A., Stadt, K.J., Tollestrup, P., Leiffers, V.J., Dispersal of white spruce in mature aspen stands (1998) Can. J. Bot., 76, pp. 181-188; Waldron, R.M., Cone production and seedfall in a mature white spruce stand (1964) For. Chron., 41, pp. 316-329; Young, J.A., Young, C.G., (1992) Seeds of Woody Plants in North America, , Dioscorides Press, Portland, Ore; Zar, J.H., (1999) Biostatistical Analysis, , Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J; Zasada, J.C., Foote, M.H., Deneke, F.J., Parkerson, R.H., Case history of an excellent white spruce cone and seed crop in interior Alaska: Cone and seed prduction, germination, and seedling survival (1987) U.S. For. Serv. Tech. Rep. PNW-177. },
    ABSTRACT = { Many aspects of temporal variation in tree seed production (e.g., the proability distribution, periodicity, unimodality) are poorly understood. In this paper, we used 32 annual seed production records from 22 species to show that there are no discernible endogenous cycles, and there is a modest (but seldom significant) tendency for a high seed production year to be followed by an unusually low production year. Finally, we found that all of the records conformed to a single lognormal probability distribution, although our ability to discriminate among species, given short and extremely variable records, is admittedly very limited. We used the lognormal to develop the distribution of the sums of local seed production events (summed across 4 years) as an aid in predicting postharvest or postfire tree regeneration success. Our conclusion is that reliable (defined as 90% of the time) adequate stocking at the edge of an area source requires that the species of interest must comprise a very large fraction of the total basal area per area. Indeed, if the species constitutes less than about 50% of the source, neither burns nor even very narrow strip cuts will be reliably stocked. },
    KEYWORDS = { Biodiversity Computer simulation Plants (botany) Probability distributions Seed Periodicity Temporal variation Forestry modeling seed production temporal analysis tree },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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