GreeneQuesada2005

Référence

Greene, D.F. and Quesada, M. (2005) Seed size, dispersal, and aerodynamic constraints within the Bombacaceae. American Journal of Botany, 92(6):998-1005.

Résumé

The aerodynamic constraints operating on the wind-dispersed, drag-producing diaspores of several species of the tropical family Bombacaceae were examined. Kapok (the drag-promoting appendage) was best characterized as a moderately flattened hemisphere impervious to air movement. The kapok shape was not isometric: kapok planform area was proportional to the kapok mass raised to the power 0.52 rather than to the 0.67 expected from isometry. Thus, necessarily, terminal velocity rises with seed mass much faster in this group than among taxa with winged seeds. Further, we derived the optimality argument to show that the kapok mass ought to be about 50% of the total diaspore mass (seed plus kapok). While seven of eight species had a lower kapok investment than this, and none were especially close to the theoretically optimal value, nonetheless the kapok investment values were hardly draws from a random distribution. Finally, the kapok fibers of these Bombacaceae species begin to bend at a drag of about 0.005 N, and this sets an upper limit on the efficient diaspore size of about 250 mg for the seed mass. This latter value is similar to the mass of the largest seed we know of in this family.

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@ARTICLE { GreeneQuesada2005,
    AUTHOR = { Greene, D.F. and Quesada, M. },
    TITLE = { Seed size, dispersal, and aerodynamic constraints within the Bombacaceae },
    JOURNAL = { American Journal of Botany },
    YEAR = { 2005 },
    VOLUME = { 92 },
    PAGES = { 998-1005 },
    NUMBER = { 6 },
    NOTE = { 00029122 (ISSN) Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: AJBOA Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Greene, D.F.; Department of Geography; Concordia University; 1455 de Maisonnueve Boulevard Montreal, Que. H3G 1M8, Canada; email: greene@alcor.concordia.ca References: Augspurger, C.K., Morphology and dispersal potential of wind-dispersed diaspores of neotropical trees (1986) American Journal of Botany, 73, pp. 353-363; Augspurger, C.K., Mass allocation, moisture content, and dispersal capacity of wind-dispersed tropical diaspores (1988) New Phytologist, 108, pp. 357-368; Baker, H.G., Ceiba pentandra (1983) Costa Rican Natural History, pp. 212-215. , D. H. Janzen [ed.], University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA; Bullock, S.H., Solis-Magallanes, A., Phenology of canopy trees of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico (1990) Biotropica, 22, pp. 23-35; Casante-Marin, A., La familia Bombacaceae (Mavales) en Costa Rica (1997) Brenesia, 47-48, pp. 17-36; Clements, H.B., Lift-off of forest firebrands (1977) USDA Forest Service Research Paper SE-159, , Southeastern Experiment Station, Franklinton, Louisiana, USA; Debain, S., Curt, T., Lepart, J., Seed mass, seed dispersal capacity, and seedling performance in a Pinus sylvestris population (2003) Ecoscience, 10, pp. 168-175; Goulding, E., (1917) Cotton and Other Vegetable Fibers: Their Production and Utilization, , John Murray, London, UK; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., The aerodynamics of plumed seeds (1990) Functional Ecology, 4, pp. 17-24; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Can the variation in samara mass and terminal velocity on an individual plant affect the distribution of dispersal distances? (1992) American Naturalist, 139, pp. 825-838; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Seed mass and dispersal capacity in wind-dispersed diaspores (1993) Oikos, 67, pp. 69-74; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Seed mass and juvenile survivorship of trees in clearings and shelterwoods (1998) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28, pp. 1307-1316; Greene, D.F., Calogeropoulos, C., Dispersal of seeds by animals and wind (2002) Dispersal Ecology, pp. 3-23. , J. Bullock, R. Kenward, and R. Hails [eds.], Blackwell Press, Oxford, UK; Hoerner, S.F., Aerodynamic properties of screens and fabrics (1952) Textile Research Journal, 22, pp. 274-280; Jurado, E., Westoby, M., Seedling growth in relation to seed size among species of arid Australia (1992) Journal of Ecology, 80, pp. 407-416; Kirby, R.H., (1963) Vegetable Fibers: Botany, Cultivation, and Utilization, , Leonard Hill, Limited, London, UK; Kohlermann, L., Untersuchungen uber die Windverbreitung der Fruchte und Samen d. mitteleuroaaischer Waldbaume (1950) Fortstwissenschaftliches Centrelbtati, 69, pp. 606-624; Laws, E.M., Livesay, J.L., Flow through screens (1978) Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 10, pp. 247-266; Lobo, J.A., Quesada, M., Stoner, K.E., Fuchs, E.J., Herreri?as-Diego, Y., Rojas, J., Sabori?o, G., Factors affecting phenological patterns of Bombacaceous trees in seasonal forests in Costa Rica and Mexico (2003) American Journal of Botany, 90, pp. 1054-1063; Nathan, R., Safriel, U.N., Noy-Meir, I., Shiller, G., Samara's aerodynamic properties in Pinus halepensis Mill., a colonizing tree species, remain constant despite considerable variation in morphology (1996) Preservation of Our World in the Wake of Change, V1 A-B, pp. 553-556. , Y. Steinberg, [ed.], ISEEQS Pub. Jerusalem, Israel; Nathan, R., Muller-Landau, C., Spatial patterns of seed dispersal, their determinants and consequences for recruitment (2000) Trends in Evolution and Ecology, 17, pp. 278-285; Nathan, R., Safriel, U.N., Noy-Meir, I., Field validation and sensitivity analysis of a mechanistic model for tree seed dispersal by wind (2001) Ecology, 82, pp. 374-388; Nathan, R., Horn, H.S., Chave, J., Levin, S.A., Mechanistic models for tree seed dispersal by wind in dense forests and open landscapes (2002) Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, pp. 69-81. , D. J. Levey, W. R. Silva, and M. Galetti [eds.], CAB International, Wallingford, UK; Nathan, R., Katul, G.G., Horn, H.S., Thomas, S.M., Oren, R., Avissar, R., Pacala, S.W., Levin, S.A., Mechanisms of long-distance dispersal of seeds by wind (2002) Nature, 418, pp. 409-413; Olivieri, I., Michalakis, Y., Gouyon, P.H., Metapopulation genetics and the evolution of dispersal (1995) American Naturalist, 146, pp. 202-228; Quesada, M., Stoner, K.E., Rosas-Guerrero, V., Palacios-Guevara, C., Lobo, J.A., Effects of habitat disruption on the activity of nectarivorous bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a dry tropical forest: implications for the reproductive success of the neotropical tree Ceiba grandiflora (2003) Oecologia, 135, pp. 400-406; Tackenberg, O., Modelling long-distance dispersal of plant diaspores by wind (2003) Ecological Monographs, 73, pp. 173-189; Tackenberg, O., Poshold, P., Bonn, S., Assessment of wind dispersal potential in plant species (2003) Ecological Monographs, 73, pp. 191-205; Van Der Pijl, L., (1982) Principles of Dipsersal in Higher Plants, , Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany; White, F.M., (1974) Viscous Fluid Flow, , McGraw Hill, New York, New York, USA; Willson, M.F., Traveset, A., The ecology of seed dispersal (2000) Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities, pp. 61-86. , M. Fenner [ed.], Redwood Press, Melksham, UK. },
    ABSTRACT = { The aerodynamic constraints operating on the wind-dispersed, drag-producing diaspores of several species of the tropical family Bombacaceae were examined. Kapok (the drag-promoting appendage) was best characterized as a moderately flattened hemisphere impervious to air movement. The kapok shape was not isometric: kapok planform area was proportional to the kapok mass raised to the power 0.52 rather than to the 0.67 expected from isometry. Thus, necessarily, terminal velocity rises with seed mass much faster in this group than among taxa with winged seeds. Further, we derived the optimality argument to show that the kapok mass ought to be about 50% of the total diaspore mass (seed plus kapok). While seven of eight species had a lower kapok investment than this, and none were especially close to the theoretically optimal value, nonetheless the kapok investment values were hardly draws from a random distribution. Finally, the kapok fibers of these Bombacaceae species begin to bend at a drag of about 0.005 N, and this sets an upper limit on the efficient diaspore size of about 250 mg for the seed mass. This latter value is similar to the mass of the largest seed we know of in this family. },
    KEYWORDS = { Aerodynamics Bombacaceae Kapok Seed dispersal Seed size Wind anemophily seed dispersal Malvaceae },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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