ProulxGreene2001

Référence

Proulx, O.J. and Greene, D.F. (2001) The relationship between ice thickness and northern hardwood tree damage during ice storms. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31(10):1758-1767.

Résumé

The response of four tree species, Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer rubrum L., Populus tremuloides Michx., and Betula populifolia Marsh., to ice storm damage was studied in the northern hardwood forest of southern Quebec. The focus of the study was the impact of ice accretion on trees as a function of damage type and species at the stand and regional scales along a gradient of ice accumulation ranging from 2 to 88 mm radial thickness and to assess the role of the combined effect of ice and wind stress. Further, we estimate the return time for death resulting from ice storms in these forests. The study showed that the magnitude of ice accumulation was the primary determinant of tree damage (measured as the mean percentage of individual tree canopy removed) and that tree size was the primary determinant of damage type (bending, snapping, or substantial branch loss). Stand position (edge versus interior) did not influence susceptibility to damage. The research demonstrated that edge and slope trees bent or snapped in the direction dictated by crown asymmetry. We have no evidence that the modest winds during this icing event played a major role. Lastly, we couple the return time for a given ice thickness with the probability of severe damage to argue that (i) canopy tree mortality from icing is primarily due to glaze accumulations of moderate rarity (around 12-35 mm of ice) rather than extraordinary events such as 1998 and (ii) ice storms are likely the greatest single source of canopy tree mortality in the hardwood forests of southern Quebec with an estimated return time for death of about 250 years.

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@ARTICLE { ProulxGreene2001,
    AUTHOR = { Proulx, O.J. and Greene, D.F. },
    TITLE = { The relationship between ice thickness and northern hardwood tree damage during ice storms },
    JOURNAL = { Canadian Journal of Forest Research },
    YEAR = { 2001 },
    VOLUME = { 31 },
    PAGES = { 1758-1767 },
    NUMBER = { 10 },
    NOTE = { 00455067 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 15 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: CJFRA doi: 10.1139/cjfr-31-10-1758 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Greene, D.F.; Geography Department; Concordia University; 1455 Boulevard de Maisonneuve Ouest Montre?al, Que. H3G 1M8, Canada; email: greene@alcor.concordia.ca References: Abell, C.A., Influence of glaze storms upon hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians (1934) J. For., 32, pp. 35-37; Benjamin, J.R., Cornell, C.A., (1970) Probability, statistics and decision for civil engineers, , McGraw-Hill, New York; Boerner, R.E.J., Runge, S.D., Cho, D.-S., Kooser, J.G., Localized ice storm damage in an Appalachian plateau watershed (1988) Am. Midl. Nat., 119, pp. 199-208; Bruederle, L.P., Stearns, F.W., Ice storm damage to a southern Wisconsin mesic forest (1985) Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 112, pp. 167-175; Campbell, W.A., Decay hazard resulting from ice damage to northern hardwoods (1937) J. For., 5, pp. 1156-1158; Canham, C.D., Loucks, O.L., Catastrophic windthrow in the presettlement forest of Wisconsin (1984) Ecology, 65, pp. 803-809; Carvell, K.L., Tryon, E.H., True, R.P., Effects of glaze on the development of Appalachian hardwoods (1957) J. For., 55, pp. 130-132; Cook, B.D., (1971) Tree-age distribution in a northern hardwood forest, , M.Sc. thesis, Department of Geography, McGill University, Montre?al, Que; DeSteven, D., Kline, J., Matthiae, P.E., Long-term changes in a Wisconsin Fagus-Acer forest in relation to glaze storm disturbance (1991) J. Veg. Sci., 2, pp. 201-208; Deuber, C.G., The glaze storm of 1940 (1940) Am. For., 46, p. 210; Downs, A.A., Glaze damage in the birch-beech-maple-hemlock type of Pennsylvania and New York (1938) J. For., 36, pp. 63-70; Elfashny, K., Chouinard, L.E., Laflamme, J., Estimation of combined wind and ice loads on telecommunication towers in Que?bec. Phase 1: Modeling of the ice and wind observations (1996) Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures (IWAIS '96), pp. 137-141. , Chicoutimi, Que. Edited by M. Farzaneh and J. Laflamme; Fe?lin, B., Ten years of standardized field ice accretion measurements in Que?bec (1986) Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures (IWAIS '86), pp. 9-15. , Vancouver, B.C. Edited by L.E. Welsh and D.J. Armstrong. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ont; Frelich, L.E., Lorimer, C.G., Natural disturbance regimes in the hemlock-hardwood forests of the upper Great Lakes region (1991) Ecol. Monogr., 61, pp. 145-164; Goebel, C.J., Deitschman, G.H., Ice storm damage to planted conifers in Iowa (1967) J. For., 65, pp. 496-497; Harshberger, J.W., (1904) The relation of ice storms to trees, pp. 345-349. , Botanical Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Contrib. 2; Hauer, R.J., Wang, W., Dawson, J.O., Ice storm damage to urban trees (1993) J. Arboric., 19, pp. 187-193; Hauer, R.J., Hruska, M.C., Dawson, J.O., (1994) Trees and ice storms: the development of ice storm-resistant urban tree populations, , Department of Forestry. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Ill. Spec. Publ. 94-1; Illick, J.S., A destructive snow and ice storm (1916) For. Leaves, 15, pp. 103-107; Kerry, M., Kelk, G., Etkin, D., Burton, I., Kalhok, S., Canada copes with the ice storm of 1998 (1999) Environment, 41 (1), pp. 7+; Laflamme, J.N., Pe?riard, G., The climate of freezing rain over the province of Que?bec in Canada: A preliminary analysis (1996) Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures (IWAIS '96), pp. 19-24. , Chicoutimi, Que. Edited by M. Farzaneh and J. Laflamme; Laflamme, J., Pe?riard, G., (1998) Verglas du 5 au 9 janvier 1998: e?paisseur radiale maximale du verglas en millime?tre sur un conducteur ACSR de 30 millime?tres de diame?tre, , Hydro-Que?bec, Montre?al, Que. (Map); Lemon, P.C., Forest ecology of ice storms (1961) Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 88, pp. 21-29; Lorimer, C.G., The presettlement forest and natural disturbance cycle of northeastern Maine (1977) Ecology, 58, pp. 139-148; Lorimer, C.G., Frelich, L.E., Natural disturbance regimes in old-growth northern hardwoods (1994) J. For., 92, pp. 33-38; Low, T.B., Stewart, R.E., Thompson, J.R., Mesoscale structure of icing storms over the Canadian East Coast and Ontario (1986) Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Atmospheric Icing of Structures (IWAIS '86), pp. 3-8. , Vancouver, B.C. Edited by L.E. Welsh and D.J. Armstrong. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ont; McKay, G.A., Thompson, H.A., Estimating the hazard of ice accretion in Canada from climatological data (1969) J. Appl. Meteorol., 8, pp. 927-935; Melancon, S., Lechowicz, M.J., Differences in the damage caused by glaze ice on codominant Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia (1987) Can. J. Bot., 65, pp. 1157-1159; (1998) Dommages cause?s a? la fore?t par le verglas de janvier 1998, , Unpublished report. Ministe?re des Ressources naturelles du Que?bec, Direction de la conservation des fore?ts, Que?bec, Que; (2000) Management of ice storm damaged stands, , Ministe?re des Ressources naturelles du Que?bec, Charlesbourg, Que. Rep. 2000-3070; Na?geli, W., Die windbremsung durch einen gro?sseren waldkomplex (1953) Pre-issue of the Proceedings of the Congress of the Union of Forest Research Organization, pp. 240-246. , Rome, Section II. IUFRO, Florence, Italy; Nicholas, N.S., Zedaker, S.M., Ice damage in spruce-fir forests of the Black Mountains, North Carolina (1989) Can. J. For. Res., 19, pp. 1487-1491; Rebertus, A.J., Shifley, S.R., Richards, R.H., Roovers, L.M., Ice storm damage to an old-growth oak-hickory forest in Missouri (1997) Am. Midl. Nat., 137, pp. 48-61; Rhoades, V., Ice storms in the southern Appalachians (1918) Mon. Weather Rev., 46, pp. 373-374; Rogers, W.E., Ice storms and trees (1922) Torreya, 22, pp. 61-63; Rogers, W.E., Resistance of trees to ice-storm injury (1923) Torreya, 23, pp. 95-99; Rogers, W.E., Trees in a glaze storm (1924) Tycos, 14, pp. 4-8; Runkle, J.R., Disturbance regimes in temperate forests (1985) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics, pp. 17-33. , Edited by S.T.A. Pickett and P.S. White. Academic Press, New York; Sampson, G.R., Wurtz, T.L., Record interior Alaska snowfall effect on tree breakage (1994) North. J. Appl. For., 11, pp. 138-140; Seischab, F.K., Bernard, J.M., Eberle, M.D., Glaze storm damage to western New York forest communities (1993) Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 120, pp. 64-72; Shortle, W.C., Smith, K.T., Northeastern Forest Experiment Station (1998) USDA Forest Service, Durham, N.H. Inf. Sheet 1, , March 3; Siccama, T.G., Weir, G., Wallace, K., Ice damage in a mixed hardwood forest in Connecticut in relation to Vitis infestation (1976) Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 103, pp. 180-183; Sisinni, S.M., Zipperer, W.C., Pleninger, A.C., Impacts from a major ice storm: Street-tree damage in Rochester, New York (1995) J. Arboric., 21, pp. 156-167; Spaulding, P., Bratton, A.W., Decay following glaze storm damage in woodlands of central New York (1946) J. For., 44, pp. 515-519; Von Schrenk, H., A severe sleet-storm (1900) Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 10, pp. 143-160; Whitney, H.E., Johnson, W.C., Ice storms and forest succession in southern Virginia (1984) Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 111, pp. 429-437; Yip, T.C., Estimating icing amounts caused by freezing precipitation in Canada (1995) Atmos. Res., 36, pp. 221-232; Zar, J.H., (1996) Biostatistical analysis, , Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. },
    ABSTRACT = { The response of four tree species, Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer rubrum L., Populus tremuloides Michx., and Betula populifolia Marsh., to ice storm damage was studied in the northern hardwood forest of southern Quebec. The focus of the study was the impact of ice accretion on trees as a function of damage type and species at the stand and regional scales along a gradient of ice accumulation ranging from 2 to 88 mm radial thickness and to assess the role of the combined effect of ice and wind stress. Further, we estimate the return time for death resulting from ice storms in these forests. The study showed that the magnitude of ice accumulation was the primary determinant of tree damage (measured as the mean percentage of individual tree canopy removed) and that tree size was the primary determinant of damage type (bending, snapping, or substantial branch loss). Stand position (edge versus interior) did not influence susceptibility to damage. The research demonstrated that edge and slope trees bent or snapped in the direction dictated by crown asymmetry. We have no evidence that the modest winds during this icing event played a major role. Lastly, we couple the return time for a given ice thickness with the probability of severe damage to argue that (i) canopy tree mortality from icing is primarily due to glaze accumulations of moderate rarity (around 12-35 mm of ice) rather than extraordinary events such as 1998 and (ii) ice storms are likely the greatest single source of canopy tree mortality in the hardwood forests of southern Quebec with an estimated return time for death of about 250 years. },
    KEYWORDS = { Forestry Ice Storms Wind stress Tree damage Hardwoods forest ecosystem ice thickness mortality storm damage Canada },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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