HumphriesThomasKramer2003

Référence

Humphries, M.M., Thomas, D.W. and Kramer, D.L. (2003) The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit approach. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 76(2):165-179.

Résumé

Hibernation is widely regarded as an adaptation to seasonal energy shortage, but the actual influence of energy availability on hibernation patterns is rarely considered. Here we review literature on the costs and benefits of torpor expression to examine the influence that energy may have on hibernation patterns. We first establish that the dichotomy between food- and fat-storing hibernators coincides with differences in diet rather than body size and show that small or large species pursuing either strategy have considerable potential scope in the amount of torpor needed to survive winter. Torpor expression provides substantial energy savings, which increase the chance of surviving a period of food shortage and emerging with residual energy for early spring reproduction. However, all hibernating mammals periodically arouse to normal body temperatures during hibernation. The function of these arousals has long been speculated to involve recovery from physiological costs accumulated during metabolic depression, and recent physiological studies indicate these costs may include oxidative stress, reduced immunocompetence, and perhaps neuronal tissue damage. Using an optimality approach, we suggest that trade-offs between the benefits of energy conservation and the physiological costs of metabolic depression can explain both why hibernators periodically arouse from torpor and why they should use available energy to minimize the depth and duration of their torpor bouts. On the basis of these trade-offs, we derive a series of testable predictions concerning the relationship between energy availability and torpor expression. We conclude by reviewing the empirical support for these predictions and suggesting new avenues for research on the role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation.

Format EndNote

Vous pouvez importer cette référence dans EndNote.

Format BibTeX-CSV

Vous pouvez importer cette référence en format BibTeX-CSV.

Format BibTeX

Vous pouvez copier l'entrée BibTeX de cette référence ci-bas, ou l'importer directement dans un logiciel tel que JabRef .

@ARTICLE { HumphriesThomasKramer2003,
    AUTHOR = { Humphries, M.M. and Thomas, D.W. and Kramer, D.L. },
    TITLE = { The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit approach },
    JOURNAL = { Physiological and Biochemical Zoology },
    YEAR = { 2003 },
    VOLUME = { 76 },
    PAGES = { 165-179 },
    NUMBER = { 2 },
    NOTE = { 15222152 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 23 Export Date: 26 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: PBZOF Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Humphries, M.M.; Dept. of Natural Resource Sciences; McGill University; Macdonald Campus; 21,111 Lakeshore Road Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Que. H9X 3V9, Canada; email: humphries@nrs.mcgill.ca References: Armitage, K.B., Social and population dynamics of yellow-bellied marmots: Results from long-term research (1991) Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 22, pp. 379-407; Arnold, W., Energetics of social hibernation (1993) Life in the Cold: Ecological, Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms, pp. 65-80. , C. Carey, G.L. Florant, B.A. Wunder, and B. Horwitz, eds. Westview, Boulder, Colo; Avery, M.I., Winter activity of pipistrelle bats (1985) J Anim Ecol, 54, pp. 721-738; Barnes, B.M., Influence of energy stores on activation of reproductive function in male golden-mantled ground squirrels (1984) J Comp Physiol, 154, pp. 421-425; Relationships between hibernation and reproduction in male ground squirrels (1996) Adaptations to the Cold, pp. 71-80. , F. Geiser, A.J. Hulbert, and S.C. Nicol, eds. University of New England Press, Armidale, New South Wales; Barnes, B.M., Kretzmann, M., Licht, P., Zucker, I., The influence of hibernation on testis growth and spermatogenesis in the golden-mantled ground squirrel, Spermophilus lateralis (1986) Biol Reprod, 35, pp. 1289-1297; Bednekoff, P.A., Risk-sensitive foraging, fitness, and life histories: Where does reproduction fit into the big picture? (1996) Am Zool, 36, pp. 471-483; Buck, C.L., Barnes, B.M., Annual cycle of body composition and hibernation in free-living arctic ground squirrels (1999) J Mammal, 80, pp. 430-442; Temperatures of hibernacula and changes in body composition of arctic ground squirrels over winter (1999) J Mammal, 80, pp. 1264-1276; Effects of ambient temperature on metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and torpor in an arctic hibernator (2000) Am J Physiol, 279, pp. R255-R262; Burton, R.S., Reichman, O.J., Does immune challenge affect torpor duration? (1999) Funct Ecol, 13, pp. 232-237; Buzadzic, B., Spasic, M., Saicic, Z.S., Radojicic, R., Petrovic, P.M., Haliwell, B., Antioxidant defenses in ground squirrel Citellus citellus. II. The effect of hibernation (1990) J Free Radic Biol Med, 9, pp. 407-413; Carey, C., Why do hibernators periodically arouse? overview (1993) Life in the Cold: Ecological, Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms, pp. 24-35. , C. Carey, G.L. Florant, B.A. Wunder, and B. Horwitz, eds. Westview, Boulder, Colo; Carey, C., Florant, G.L., Wunder, B.A., Horwitz, B., (1993) Life in the Cold: Ecological, Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms, , Westview, Boulder, Colo; Carey, H.V., Seasonal changes in mucosal structure and function in ground squirrel intestine (1990) Am J Physiol, 259, pp. R385-R392; Effects of fasting and hibernation on ion secretion in ground squirrel intestine (1992) Am J Physiol, 263, pp. R1202-R1208; Gut feelings about hibernation (1995) News Physiol Sci, 10, pp. 55-61; Carey, H.V., Frank, C.L., Seifert, J., Hibernation induces oxidative stress and activation of NF-?B in ground squirrel intestine (2000) J Comp Physiol B, 170, pp. 551-559; Carey, H.V., Sills, N.S., Gorham, D.A., Stress proteins in mammalian hibernation (1999) Am Zool, 39, pp. 825-835; Choi, I.-H., Cho, Y., Oh, Y.K., Jung, N.-P., Shin, H.-C., Behavior and muscle performance in heterothermic bats (1998) Physiol Biochem Zool, 71, pp. 257-266; Cossins, A.R., Roberts, N., The gut in feast and famine (1996) Nature, 379, p. 23; Cranford, J.A., Ecological strategies of a small hibernator, the western jumping mouse Zapus princeps (1978) Can J Zool, 61, pp. 232-240; Daan, S., Barnes, B.M., Strijkstra, A.M., Warming up for sleep? ground squirrels sleep during arousals from hibernation (1991) Neurosci Lett, 128, pp. 265-268; Davenport, J., (1992) Animal Life at Low Temperature, , Chapman \& Hall, London; Davis, D.E., Hibernation and circannual rhythms of food consumption in marmots and ground squirrels (1976) Q Rev Biol, 51, pp. 477-514; Dobson, F.S., Michener, G.R., Maternal traits and reproduction in Richardson's ground squirrels (1995) Ecology, 76, pp. 851-862; Elliot, L., Social behavior and foraging ecology of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) in the Adirondack Mountains (1978) Smithson Contrib Zool, 264, pp. 1-107; Fisher, K.C., Dawe, A.R., Lyman, C.P., Scho?nbaum, E., South F.E., Jr., (1967) Mammal Hibernation, 3. , Elsevier, New York; Florant, G.L., Hill, V., Ogilvie, M.D., Circadian rhythms of body temperature in laboratory and field marmots (Marmota flaviventris) (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 223-231. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Frank, C.L., Dierenfeld, E., Storey, K., The relationship between lipid peroxidation, hibernation, and food selection in mammals (1998) Am Zool, 38, pp. 341-349; Frank, C.L., Gibbs, A.G., Dierenfeld, E.S., Kramer, J.V., The effects of ?-tocopherol on mammalian torpor (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 207-213. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Frank, C.L., Storey, K.B., The optimal depot fat concentration for hibernation by golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) (1995) J Comp Physiol B, 164, pp. 536-542; French, A.R., Selection of high temperatures for hibernation by the pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris: Ecological advantages and energetic consequences (1976) Ecology, 57, pp. 185-191; Intraspecific differences in the pattern of hibernation in the ground squirrel Spermophilus beldingi (1982) J Comp Physiol B, 148, pp. 83-91; Allometries of the durations of torpid and euthermic intervals during mammalian hibernation: A test of the theory of metabolic control of the timing of changes in body temperature (1985) J Comp Physiol B, 156, pp. 13-19; The patterns of mammalian hibernation (1988) Am Sci, 76, pp. 569-575; The impact of variations in energy availability on the time spent torpid during the hibernation season (1989) Living in the Cold, 2, pp. 129-136. , A. Malan and B. Canguilhem, eds. John Libbey Eurotext, London; Mammalian dormancy (1992) Mammalian Energetics, pp. 105-121. , T.E. Tomasi and T.H. Horton, eds. Comstock, Ithaca, N.Y; Interdependency of stored food and changes in body temperature during hibernation of the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus (2000) J Mammal, 81, pp. 979-985; French, A.R., Forand, S., Role of soil temperature in timing of emergence from hibernation in the jumping mouse, Zapus hudsonius (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 111-118. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Frerichs, K.U., Smith, C.B., Brenner, M., DeGracia, D.J., Krause, G.S., Marrone, L., Dever, T.E., Hallenbeck, J.M., Suppression of protein synthesis in brain during hibernation involves inhibition of protein initiation and elongation (1998) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95, pp. 14511-14516; Geiser, F., Reduction of metabolism during hibernation and daily torpor in mammals and birds: Temperature effect or physiological inhibition? (1988) J Comp Physiol B, 158, pp. 25-38; Dietary lipids and thermal physiology (1993) Life in the Cold: Ecological, Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms, pp. 141-153. , C. Carey, G.L. Florant, B.A. Wunder, and B. Horwitz, eds. Westview, Boulder, Colo; Geiser, F., Hiebert, S., Kenagy, G.J., Torpor bout duration during the hibernation season of two sciurid rodents: Interrelations with temperature and metabolism (1990) Physiol Zool, 63, pp. 489-503; Geiser, F., Holloway, J.C., Kortner, G., Maddocks, T.A., Turbill, C., Brigham, R.M., Do patterns of torpor differ between free-ranging and captive mammals and birds? (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 95-102. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Geiser, F., Hulbert, A.J., Nicol, S.C., (1996) Adaptations to the Cold, , University of New England Press, Armidale, New South Wales; Geiser, F., Kenagy, G.J., Torpor duration in relation to temperature and metabolism in hibernating ground squirrels (1988) Physiol Zool, 61, pp. 442-449; Geiser, F., Ruf, T., Hibernation versus daily torpor in mammals and birds: Physiological variables and classification of torpor patterns (1995) Physiol Zool, 68, pp. 935-966; Grigg, G., Beard, L., Hibernation by echidnas in mild climates: Hints about the evolution of endothermy (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 5-19. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Guppy, M., Withers, P., Metabolic depression in animals: Physiological perspectives and biochemical generalizations (1999) Biol Rev, 74, pp. 1-40; Ha?cklander, K., Arnold, W., Male-caused failure of female reproduction and its adaptive value in alpine marmots (Marmota marmota) (1999) Behav Ecol, 10, pp. 592-597; Hall, C.A.S., Stanford, J.A., Hauer, F.R., The distribution and abundance of organisms as a consequence of energy balances along multiple environmental gradients (1992) Oecologia, 65, pp. 377-390; Hammond, K.A., Diamond, J., Maximal sustained energy budgets in humans and animals (1997) Nature, 386, pp. 457-462; Harlow, H.J., Fasting biochemistry of representative spontaneous and facultative hibernators: The white-tailed prairie dog and the black-tailed prairie dog (1995) Physiol Zool, 68, pp. 915-934; Harlow, H.J., Frank, C.L., The role of dietary fatty acids in the evolution of spontaneous and facultative hibernation patterns in prairie dogs (2001) J Comp Physiol B, 171, pp. 77-84; Harlow, H.J., Menkens, G.E., A comparison of hibernation in the black-tailed prairie dog, white-tailed prairie dog and Wyoming ground squirrel (1986) Can J Zool, 64, pp. 793-796; Heldmaier, G., Klingenspor, M., (2000) Life in the Cold, , Springer, Berlin; Heldmaier, G., Ruf, T., Body temperature and metabolic rate during natural hypothermia in endotherms (1992) J Comp Physiol B, 158, pp. 696-706; Heller, H.C., Musacchia, X.J., Wang, L.C.H., (1986) Living in the Cold, , Elsevier, Amsterdam; Hilderbrand, G.V., Schwartz, C.C., Robbins, C.T., Hanley, T.A., Effect of hibernation and reproductive status on body mass and condition of coastal brown bears (2000) J Wildl Manag, 64, pp. 178-183; Hochachka, P.W., Guppy, M., (1987) Metabolic Arrest and the Control of Biological Time, , Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass; Houston, A., McNamara, J., (1999) Models of Adaptive Behaviour, , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; Hume, I.D., Bieglbock, C., Ruf, T., Frey-Roos, F., Bruns, U., Arnold, W., Seasonal changes in morphology and function of the gastrointestinal tract of free-living alpine marmots (Marmota marmota) (2002) J Comp Physiol B, 172, pp. 197-207; Humphries, M.M., Thomas, D.W., Hall, C.L., Speakman, J.R., Kramer, D.L., The energetics of autumn mast hoarding in eastern chipmunks (2002) Oecologia, 133, pp. 30-37; Humphries, M.M., Thomas, D.W., Kramer, D.L., Torpor and digestion in food-storing hibernators (2001) Physiol Biochem Zool, 74, pp. 283-292; The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: An experimental test in free-ranging eastern chipmunks (2003) Physiol Biochem Zool, 76; Humphries, M.M., Thomas, D.W., Speakman, J.R., Climate-mediated energetic constraints on the distribution of hibernating mammals (2002) Nature, 418, pp. 313-316; Jedrzejewski, W., Jedrzejewski, B., McNeish, E., Hunting success of the weasel Mustela nivalis and escape tactics of forest rodents of the Bialowieza National Park (1992) Acta Theriol, 37, pp. 319-328; Karels, T.J., Byrom, A.E., Boonstra, R., Krebs, C.J., The interactive effects of food and predators on reproduction and overwinter survival of arctic ground squirrels (2000) J Anim Ecol, 69, pp. 235-247; Kavanau, J.L., Memory, sleep and the evolution of mechanisms of synaptic efficacy maintenance (1997) Neuroscience, 79, pp. 7-44; Adaptations and pathologies linked to dynamic stabilization of neural circuitry (1999) Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 23, pp. 635-648; Kayser, C., (1961) The Physiology of Natural Hibernation, , Pergamon, New York; Kenagy, G.J., Daily and seasonal uses of energy stores in torpor and hibernation (1989) Living in the Cold, 2, pp. 17-24. , A. Malan and B. Canguilhem, eds. John Libbey Eurotext, London; King, W.J., Festa-Bianchet, M., Hatfield, S.E., Determinants of reproductive success in female Columbian ground squirrels (1991) Oecologia, 86, pp. 528-534; Kleiber, M., Body size and metabolic rate (1947) Physiol Rev, 27, pp. 511-541; Kolaeva, S.G., Kramarova, L.I., Ilyasova, E.N., Ilyasov, F.E., The kinetics and metabolism of the cells of hibernating animals during hibernation (1980) Int Rev Cytol, 66, pp. 147-170; Kunz, T.H., Wrazen, J.A., Burnett, C.D., Changes in body mass and fat reserves in pre-hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) (1998) Ecoscience, 5, pp. 8-17; Larkin, J.E., Heller, H.C., Sleep after arousal from hibernation is not homeostatically regulated (1999) Am J Physiol, 276, pp. R522-R529; Lima, S.L., Bednekoff, P.A., Temporal variation in danger drives antipredator behavior: The predation risk allocation hypothesis (1999) Am Nat, 153, pp. 649-659; Lima, S.L., Dill, L.M., Behavioural decisions made under the risk of predation: A review and prospectus (1990) Can J Zool, 68, pp. 619-640; Lindstedt, S.L., Boyce, M.S., Seasonality, fasting endurance, and the body size of mammals (1985) Am Nat, 125, pp. 873-878; Lovegrove, B.G., Daily heterothermy in mammals: Coping with unpredictable environments (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 29-40. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; The zoogeography of mammalian basal metabolic rate (2000) Am Nat, 156, pp. 201-219; Lyman, C.P., Dawe, A.R., Mammalian hibernation (1960) Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, , Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass; Lyman, C.P., O'Brien, R.C., Green, G.C., Papafrangos, E.D., Hibernation and longevity in the Turkish hamster Mesocricetus brantii (1981) Science, 212, pp. 668-669; Lyman, C.P., Willis, J.S., Malan, A., Wang, L.C.H., (1982) Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds, , Academic Press, New York; Malan, A., Canguilhem, B., (1989) Living in the Cold, 2. , John Libbey Eurotext, London; Maniero, G.D., The influence of temperature and season on mitogen-induced proliferation of ground squirrel lymphocytes (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 493-503. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Maquet, P., The role of sleep in learning and memory (2001) Science, 294, pp. 1048-1052; Marjanovic, M., Willis, J.S., ATP dependence of Na+-K+ pump of cold-sensitive and cold-tolerant mammalian red blood cells (1992) J Physiol, 456, pp. 575-590; McNab, B.K., Complications inherent in scaling the basal rate of metabolism in mammals (1988) Q Rev Biol, 63, pp. 25-54; McNamara, J.M., Risk-prone behaviour under rules which have evolved in a changing environment (1996) Am Zool, 36, pp. 484-495; McNamara, M.C., Riedesel, M.L., Memory and hibernation in Citellus lateralis (1972) Science, 179, pp. 92-94; Michener, G.R., Spring emergence schedules and vernal behavior of Richardson's ground squirrels: Why do males emerge from hibernation before females? (1983) Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 14, pp. 29-38; Age, sex and species differences in the annual cycles of ground-dwelling sciurids: Implications for sociality (1984) The Biology of the Ground-Dwelling Squirrels: Annual Cycles, Behavioral Ecology, and Sociality, pp. 81-107. , J.O. Murie and G.R. Michener, eds. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebr; Sexual difference in over-winter torpor pattern of Richardson's ground squirrels in natural hibernacula (1992) Oecologia, 89, pp. 397-406; Sexual difference in reproductive effort of Richardson's ground squirrels (1998) J Mammal, 79, pp. 1-19; Caching of Richardson's ground squirrels by North American badgers (2000) J Mammal, 81, pp. 1106-1117; Michener, G.R., McLean, I.G., Reproductive behaviour and operational sex ratio in Richardson's ground squirrels (1996) Anim Behav, 52, pp. 743-758; Mihailovic, L.J., Petrovic-Minic, B., Protic, S., Divac, I., Effects of hibernation on learning and retention (1968) Nature, 218, pp. 191-192; Millar, J.S., Hickling, G.J., Fasting endurance and the evolution of mammalian body size (1990) Funct Ecol, 4, pp. 5-12; Millesi, E., Huber, S., Everts, L.G., Dittami, J.P., Reproductive decisions in female European ground squirrels: Factors affecting reproductive output and maternal investment (1999) Ethology, 105, pp. 163-175; Millesi, E., Huber, S., Walzl, M., Dittami, J.P., Follicular development and hibernation in Eurpoean ground squirrels (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 285-292. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Millesi, E., Prossinger, H., Dittami, J.P., Fieder, M., Hibernation effects on memory in European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) (2001) J Biol Rhythms, 16, pp. 264-271; Morisson, P.R., Some interrelations between weight and hibernation function (1960) Bull Mus Comp Zool, 124, pp. 75-91; Mrosovsky, N., Lipid programmes and life strategies of hibernators (1976) Am Zool, 16, pp. 685-697; Murie, J.O., Boag, D.A., The relationship of body weight to overwinter survival in Columbian ground squirrels (1984) J Mammal, 65, pp. 688-690; Murie, J.O., Harris, M.A., Annual variation of spring emergence and breeding in Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus) (1982) J Mammal, 63, pp. 431-439; Musacchia, X.J., Jansky, L., (1981) Survival in the Cold: Hibernation and Other Adaptations, , Elsevier, New York; Nedergaard, J., Cannon, B., Mammalian hibernation (1990) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 326, pp. 669-686; Nicol, S.C., Andersen, N.A., Patterns of hibernation of echidnas in Tasmania (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 21-28. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Nowak, R.M., (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World, 1-2. , Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore; Otsu, R., Kimura, T., Effects of food availability and ambient temperature on hibernation in the Japanese dormouse, Glirulus japonicus (1993) J Ethol, 11, pp. 37-42; Park, K.J., Jones, G., Ransome, R.D., Torpor, arousal and activity of hibernating Greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) (2000) Funct Ecol, 14, pp. 580-588; Piersma, T., Lindstro?m, A., Rapid reversible changes in organ size as a component of adaptive behaviour (1997) Trends Ecol Evol, 12, pp. 134-138; Popov, V.I., Bocharova, L.S., Bragin, A.G., Repeated changes of dendritic morphology in the hippocampus of ground squirrels in the course of hibernation (1992) Neuroscience, 48, pp. 45-51; Prendergast, B.J., Freeman, D.A., Zucker, I., Nelson, R.J., Periodic arousal from hibernation is necessary for initiation of immune response in ground squirrels (2002) Am J Physiol, 282, pp. R1054-R1062; Ransome, R., (1990) The Natural History of Hibernating Bats, , Christopher Helm, London; Reichman, O.J., Brown, J.H., The use of torpor by Perognathus amplus in relation to resource distribution (1979) J Mammal, 60, pp. 550-555; Robbins, C.T., (1993) Wildlife Feeding and Nutrition. 2d Ed., , Academic Press, San Diego, Calif; Ruben, J., Evolution of endothermy in mammals, birds and their ancestors (1996) Animals and Temperature, pp. 347-376. , I.A. Johnston and A.F. Bennett, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; Samson, C., Huot, J., Reproductive biology of female black bears in relation to body mass in early winter (1995) J Mammal, 76, pp. 68-77; Sauer, J.R., Slade, N.A., Uinta ground squirrel demography: Is body mass a better categorical variable than age? (1987) Ecology, 68, pp. 642-650; Shanley, D.P., Kirkwood, T.B.L., Calorie restriction and aging: A life-history analysis (2000) Evolution, 54, pp. 740-750; Silva, M., Downing, J.A., (1995) CRC Handbook of Mammalian Body Masses, , CRC, Boca Raton, Fla; Smith, C.C., Reichman, O.J., The evolution of food caching by birds and mammals (1984) Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 15, pp. 329-351; Snyder, R.L., Davis, D.E., Christian, J.J., Seasonal changes in the weights of woodchucks (1961) J Mammal, 42, pp. 297-312; Song, X., Kortner, G., Geiser, F., Thermal relations of metabolic rate reduction in a hibernating marsupial (1997) Am J Physiol, 273, pp. R2097-R2104; South, F.E., Hannon, J.P., Willis, J.R., Pengelley, E.T., Alpert, N.R., (1972) Hibernation and Hypothermia, Perspectives and Challenges, , Elsevier, Amsterdam; Speakman, J.R., The cost of living: Field metabolic rates of small mammals (2000) Adv Ecol Res, 30, pp. 177-297; Strijkstra, A.M., (1999) Periodic Euthermy during Hibernation in the European Ground Squirrel: Causes and Consequences, , PhD diss. University of Groningen; Suomalainen, P., Mammalian hibernation. II (1964) Annu Acad Sci Fenn Ser A IV Biol, 71; Taylor, C.R., Weibel, E.R., Design of the mammalian respiratory system (1981) Respir Physiol, 44, pp. 1-164; Thomas, D.W., Geiser, F., Periodic arousals in hibernating mammals: Is evaporative water loss involved? (1997) Funct Ecol, 11, pp. 585-591; Trachsel, L., Edgar, D.M., Heller, H.C., Are ground squirrels sleep deprived during hibernation? (1991) Am J Physiol, 260, pp. R1123-R1129; Van Breukelen, F., Martin, S.L., Reversible depression of transcription during hibernation (2002) J Comp Physiol B, 172, pp. 355-361; Vander Wall, S.B., (1990) Food Hoarding in Animals, , University of Chicago Press, Chicago; Wang, L.C.H., Ecological, physiological, and biochemical aspects of torpor in mammals and birds (1989) Comparative and Environmental Physiology. Vol. 4. Animal Adaptation to Cold, 4, pp. 361-401. , L.C.H. Wang, ed. Springer, Berlin; Wang, L.C.H., Hudson, J.W., Temperature regulation in normothermic and hibernating eastern chipmunks, Tamias striatus (1971) Comp Biochem Physiol, 38 A, pp. 69-90; (1978) Strategies in Cold: Natural Torpidity and Thermogenesis, , Academic Press, New York; Wang, L.C.H., Lee, T.-F., Perspectives on metabolic suppression during mammalian hibernation and daily torpor (2000) Life in the Cold, pp. 149-158. , G. Heldmaier and M. Klingenspor, eds. Springer, Berlin; Waßmer, T., Wollnik, F., Timing of torpor bouts during hibernation in European hamsters (Cricetus cricetus L.) (1997) J Comp Physiol B, 167, pp. 270-279; Weibel, E.R., (2000) Symmorphosis: On Form and Function in Shaping Life, , Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass; Wickler, S.J., Hoyt, D.F., Van Breukelen, F., Disuse atrophy in the hibernating golden-mantled ground squirrel, Spermophilus lateralis (1991) Am J Physiol, 261, pp. R1214-R1217; Willis, J.S., The mystery of the periodic arousal (1982) Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds, pp. 92-103. , C.P. Lyman, J.S. Willis, A. Malan, and L.C.H Wang, eds. Academic Press, New York; Witter, M.S., Cuthill, I.C., The ecological costs of avian fat storage (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 340, pp. 73-92; Young, P.J., Hibernating patterns of free-ranging Columbian ground squirrels (1990) Oecologia, 83, pp. 504-511. },
    ABSTRACT = { Hibernation is widely regarded as an adaptation to seasonal energy shortage, but the actual influence of energy availability on hibernation patterns is rarely considered. Here we review literature on the costs and benefits of torpor expression to examine the influence that energy may have on hibernation patterns. We first establish that the dichotomy between food- and fat-storing hibernators coincides with differences in diet rather than body size and show that small or large species pursuing either strategy have considerable potential scope in the amount of torpor needed to survive winter. Torpor expression provides substantial energy savings, which increase the chance of surviving a period of food shortage and emerging with residual energy for early spring reproduction. However, all hibernating mammals periodically arouse to normal body temperatures during hibernation. The function of these arousals has long been speculated to involve recovery from physiological costs accumulated during metabolic depression, and recent physiological studies indicate these costs may include oxidative stress, reduced immunocompetence, and perhaps neuronal tissue damage. Using an optimality approach, we suggest that trade-offs between the benefits of energy conservation and the physiological costs of metabolic depression can explain both why hibernators periodically arouse from torpor and why they should use available energy to minimize the depth and duration of their torpor bouts. On the basis of these trade-offs, we derive a series of testable predictions concerning the relationship between energy availability and torpor expression. We conclude by reviewing the empirical support for these predictions and suggesting new avenues for research on the role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation. },
    KEYWORDS = { adaptation bioenergetics cost-benefit analysis hibernation mammal torpor },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

********************************************************** ***************** Facebook Twitter *********************** **********************************************************

Abonnez-vous à
l'Infolettre du CEF!

********************************************************** ************* Écoles d'été et formation **************************** **********************************************************

Écoles d'été et formations

Ecole d'été en Biologie et Ecologie intégratives 
6-12 juillet 2019, Pyrénées françaises
École d'été en modélisation de la biodiversité 
19-23 août 2019, Orford
Cours aux cycles supérieurs: Aménagement des écosystèmes forestiers 
19-30 août 2019, Station FERLD

********************************************************** ***************** Pub - Symphonies_Boreales ****************** **********************************************************

********************************************************** ***************** Boîte à trucs *************** **********************************************************

CEF-Référence
La référence vedette !

Jérémie Alluard (2016) Les statistiques au moments de la rédaction 

  • Ce document a pour but de guider les étudiants à intégrer de manière appropriée une analyse statistique dans leur rapport de recherche.

Voir les autres...