MunroThomasHumphries2005

Référence

Munro, D., Thomas, D.W., Humphries, M.M. (2005) Torpor patterns of hibernating eastern chipmunks Tamias striatus vary in response to the size and fatty acid composition of food hoards. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74(4):692-700.

Résumé

1. Many endotherms employ torpor during periods of resource scarcity, but this state of substantially reduced body temperature and metabolism appears to impose significant physiological costs. Accordingly, individuals can be expected to vary the expression of torpor according to the size of their energy reserves. 2. Although dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for maintaining the fluidity of membrane phospholipids and depot fats at low body temperatures, they are also prone to autoxidation, which can result in significant somatic damage. Dietary PUFA may thus influence the depth and duration of torpor during hibernation. 3. We evaluated the hypothesis that both an increase in the size of the burrow food hoard and an elevation of its PUFA composition can cause chipmunks to reduce their use of torpor both by reducing the time spent torpid and by maintaining higher body temperature during torpor. 4. We provided individual chipmunks with equicaloric natural-PUFA and high-PUFA supplements 10 days prior to autumn immergence. We measured seven parameters that characterize the depth and duration of torpor used by hibernating chipmunks using temperature-sensitive data loggers mounted on neck collars. We compared torpor patterns for the natural-PUFA, high-PUFA and control groups at a study site in southern Quebec, Canada. We also compared control animals from Quebec with unsupplemented controls from a more southerly site in Pennsylvania, USA characterized by higher food availability and less severe winters. 5. Chipmunks provided with natural-PUFA supplements spent less than half as much time in torpor as control animals at the same study site, and when in torpor they exhibited skin temperatures almost twice as high as controls. Chipmunks provided with high-PUFA supplements significantly reduced the depth and duration of torpor bouts compared with animals provided with natural-PUFA supplements. The torpor patterns of unsupplemented chipmunks at the southern site approximated those of natural-PUFA chipmunks at the main study site. 6. Our results provide clear evidence that chipmunks adjust the depth and duration of torpor expression according to both the size and the composition of their energy reserves. Furthermore, both the extent and the nutritional form of environmental energy availability are important determinants of the cost and benefits of torpor expression by free-ranging endotherms. © 2005 British Ecological Society.

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@ARTICLE { MunroThomasHumphries2005,
    AUTHOR = { Munro, D. and Thomas, D.W. and Humphries, M.M. },
    TITLE = { Torpor patterns of hibernating eastern chipmunks Tamias striatus vary in response to the size and fatty acid composition of food hoards },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of Animal Ecology },
    YEAR = { 2005 },
    VOLUME = { 74 },
    PAGES = { 692-700 },
    NUMBER = { 4 },
    NOTE = { 00218790 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 2 Export Date: 26 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: JAECA doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.00968.x Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Thomas, D.W.; De?partement de Biologie; Universite? de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, Que. J1K 2R1, Canada; email: Donald.Thomas@Usherbrooke.ca References: Audet, D., Thomas, D.W., Evaluation of the accuracy of body temperature measurement using external radio transmitters (1996) Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74, pp. 1778-1781; Barnes, B.M., Influence of energy stores on activation of reproductive function in male golden-mantled ground squirrels (1984) Journal of Comparative Physiology, 154, pp. 421-425; Barnes, B.M., Relationship between hibernation and reproduction in male ground squirrels (1996) Adaptation to the Cold, pp. 71-80. , eds F. Geiser, A.J. Hulbert \& S.C. Nicol, University of New England Press, Armidale, New South Wales; Barnes, B.M., Kretzmann, M., Licht, P., Zucker, I., The influence of hibernation on testis growth and spermato-genesis in the golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (1986) Biology of Reproduction, 35, pp. 1289-1297; Buzadzic, B., Spasic, M., Saicic, Z.S., Radojicic, R., Petrovic, V.M., Halliwell, B., Antioxidant defenses in the ground squirrel Citellus citellus 2. The effect of hibernation (1990) Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 9, pp. 407-413; Carey, H.V., Frank, C.L., Seifert, J.P., Hibernation induces oxidative stress and activation of NF-kB in ground squirrel intestine (2000) Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 170, pp. 551-559; Clarke, M.F., Kramer, D.L., Scatter-hoarding by a larder-hoarding rodent - Intraspecific variation in the hoarding behaviour of the eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus (1994) Animal Behaviour, 48, pp. 299-308; Daan, S., Barnes, B.M., Strijkstra, A.M., Warming up for sleep? - Ground squirrels sleep during arousal from hibernation (1991) Neurosciences Letters, 128, pp. 265-268; French, A.R., Intraspecific differences in the pattern of hibernation in the ground squirrel Spermophilus beldingi (1982) Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 148, pp. 83-91; French, A.R., Interdependency of stored food and changes in body temperature during hibernation of the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus (2000) Journal of Mammalogy, 81, pp. 979-985; Humphries, M.M., Thomas, D.W., Kramer, D.L., The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit approach (2003) Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 76, pp. 165-179; Humphries, M.M., Kramer, D.L., Thomas, D.W., The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: An experimental test in free-ranging eastern chipmunks (2003) Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 76, pp. 180-186; Kayser, C., Hibernation (1965) Physiological Mammalogy II. Mammalian Reaction to Stressful Environments, pp. 179-296. , eds W. Mayer \& R.V. Gelder, Academic Press, New York; Kokurewicz, T., Sex and age related habitat selection and mass dynamics of Daubenton's bats Myotis daubentonii (Kuhl, 1817) hibernating in natural conditions (2004) Acta Chiropfemlogica, 6, pp. 121-144; Kortner, G., Geiser, F., Torpor and activity patterns in free-ranging sugar gliders Petaurus breviceps (Marsupialia) (2000) Oecologia, 123, pp. 350-357; Mead, J., Alfin-slater, D., Howton, D., Popjak, G., (1986) Lipids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Nutrition, , Plenum Press, New York; Michener, G.R., Sexual differences in over-winter torpor patterns of Richardson's ground squirrels in natural hibernacula (1992) Oecologia, 89, pp. 397-406; Michener, G.R., Sexual differences in reproductive efforts of Richardson's ground squirrels (1998) Journal of Mammalogy, 79, pp. 1-19; Millesi, E., Prossinger, H., Dittami, J.P., Fieder, M., Hibernation effects on memory in European ground squirrels (Spermophilus cilellus) (2001) Journal of Biological Rhytlims, 16, pp. 264-271; Mrosovsky, N., Lipid programmes and life strategies in hibernators (1976) American Zoologist, 16, pp. 685-697; Munro, D., Thomas, D.W., The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the expression of torpor by mammals: A review (2004) Zoology, 107, pp. 29-48; Murie, J.O., Boag, D.A., The relationship of body weight to overwinter survival in Columbian ground squirrel (1984) Journal of Mammalogy, 65, pp. 688-690; Prendergast, B.J., Freeman, D.A., Zucker, I., Nelson, R.J., Periodic arousal from hibernation is necessary for initiation of immune responses in ground squirrels (2002) American Journal of Physiology, 282, pp. R1054-R1062; Ransome, R.D., (1990) The Natural History of Hibernating Bats, , Christopher Helm, London; Smith, L.C., Smith, D.A., Reproductive biology, breeding seasons, and growth of eastern chipmunks, Tamias striatus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Canada (1971) Canadian Journal of Zoology, 50, pp. 1069-1085; Thomas, D.W., Dorais, M., Bergeron, J.-M., Winter energy budgets and cost of arousals for hibernating little brown bats Myotis lucifugus (1990) Journal of Mammalogy, 71, pp. 475-479; Thomas, D.W., Geiser, F., Periodic arousals in hibernating mammals - Is evaporative water loss involved (1997) Functional Ecology, 11, pp. 585-591; Toien, O., Drew, K.L., Chao, M.L., Rice, M.E., Ascorbate dynamics and oxygen consumption during arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (2001) American Journal of Physiology, 281, pp. R572-R583; Trachsel, L., Edgar, D.M., Heller, H.C., Are ground squirrels sleep deprived during hibernation? (1991) American Journal of Physiology, 260, pp. R1123-R1129; Agriculture handbook nos 8-12 (1984) Composition of Foods: Nut and Seed Products, , US Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service, Washington, DC; Wang, L.C.-H., Hudson, J., Temperature regulation in normothermic and hibernating eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus (1971) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 38 A, pp. 59-90. },
    ABSTRACT = { 1. Many endotherms employ torpor during periods of resource scarcity, but this state of substantially reduced body temperature and metabolism appears to impose significant physiological costs. Accordingly, individuals can be expected to vary the expression of torpor according to the size of their energy reserves. 2. Although dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for maintaining the fluidity of membrane phospholipids and depot fats at low body temperatures, they are also prone to autoxidation, which can result in significant somatic damage. Dietary PUFA may thus influence the depth and duration of torpor during hibernation. 3. We evaluated the hypothesis that both an increase in the size of the burrow food hoard and an elevation of its PUFA composition can cause chipmunks to reduce their use of torpor both by reducing the time spent torpid and by maintaining higher body temperature during torpor. 4. We provided individual chipmunks with equicaloric natural-PUFA and high-PUFA supplements 10 days prior to autumn immergence. We measured seven parameters that characterize the depth and duration of torpor used by hibernating chipmunks using temperature-sensitive data loggers mounted on neck collars. We compared torpor patterns for the natural-PUFA, high-PUFA and control groups at a study site in southern Quebec, Canada. We also compared control animals from Quebec with unsupplemented controls from a more southerly site in Pennsylvania, USA characterized by higher food availability and less severe winters. 5. Chipmunks provided with natural-PUFA supplements spent less than half as much time in torpor as control animals at the same study site, and when in torpor they exhibited skin temperatures almost twice as high as controls. Chipmunks provided with high-PUFA supplements significantly reduced the depth and duration of torpor bouts compared with animals provided with natural-PUFA supplements. The torpor patterns of unsupplemented chipmunks at the southern site approximated those of natural-PUFA chipmunks at the main study site. 6. Our results provide clear evidence that chipmunks adjust the depth and duration of torpor expression according to both the size and the composition of their energy reserves. Furthermore, both the extent and the nutritional form of environmental energy availability are important determinants of the cost and benefits of torpor expression by free-ranging endotherms. © 2005 British Ecological Society. },
    KEYWORDS = { Hibernation Hoarding behaviour Oxidative stress Rodent Temperature logger behavioral ecology caching hibernation rodent torpor Animalia Rodentia Tamias striatus },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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