ThomasBlondelPerret2001

Référence

Thomas, D.W., Blondel, J. and Perret, P. (2001) Physiological ecology of Mediterranean Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus): I. A test for inter-population differences in resting metabolic rate and thermal conductance as a response to hot climates. Zoology, 104(1):33-40.

Résumé

Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) are widely distributed throughout Europe, reaching the southern limit of their range on islands in the Mediterranean and in northern Africa. On Corsica, one population located at Pirio in the Fango Valley breeds roughly one month later than populations in adjacent valleys or on the continent, thus exposing nestlings to high ambient temperatures (Ta). We tested the hypothesis that nestlings and possibly adult Blue Tits at Pirio would exhibit a reduction in resting metabolic rate (MR) and an increase in thermal conductance as a physiological response to high Ta. We compared the thermoregulatory response and evaporative water loss for nestlings from Pirio in Corsica and one continental site (Vic-le-Fesq) and for adults from two Corsican (Pirio and Muro) and one continental site (La Rouvie?re). At 12-14 days of age, nestlings from Pirio showed two distinct thermoregulatory patterns. Nestlings under 8.0 g behaved as heterotherms, whereby MR was correlated only with body temperature. At body masses above 8.0 g nestlings progressively acquired the ability to regulate Tb and at masses >9.0 g they behaved as homeotherms. When considering homeothermic nestlings and adults, population of origin did not affect either thermal conductance or resting MR. For homeothermic nestlings, mass-specific resting MR (mW · g-1) was 15.5 ± 2.6 and 17.5 ± 2.5 for nestlings from Vic-le-Fesq and Pirio, respectively. For adults, mass-specific resting MR (mW ± g-1) was 17.5 ± 2.0, 17.8 ± 1.6, and 17.9 ± 1.0 for birds from Pirio, Muro, and La Rouvie?re, respectively. Although there was a weak but positive effect of Ta on evaporative water loss for homeothermic nestlings, no such trend was evident for adults over the range of Ta tested in this study. We thus find no evidence to indicate that either nestlings or adults exhibit the exponential increase in evaporative water loss associated with the non-convective regulation of Tb within the range of Ta tested (roughly ?35 °C). We conclude that there is no evidence for a specific physiological adaptation in the Pirio population. Measures of nestbox temperatures indicate that nestlings rarely experience temperatures in excess of 33 °C. We conclude that, although some years may be hot enough to impose a thermal stress, temperatures at Pirio are not high enough to consistently impose a selective pressure for physiological adaptations to heat. © by Urban & Fischer Verlag.

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@ARTICLE { ThomasBlondelPerret2001,
    AUTHOR = { Thomas, D.W. and Blondel, J. and Perret, P. },
    TITLE = { Physiological ecology of Mediterranean Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus): I. A test for inter-population differences in resting metabolic rate and thermal conductance as a response to hot climates },
    JOURNAL = { Zoology },
    YEAR = { 2001 },
    VOLUME = { 104 },
    PAGES = { 33-40 },
    NUMBER = { 1 },
    NOTE = { 09442006 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 2 Export Date: 26 April 2007 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Thomas, D.W.; Groupe de Recherche en E?cologie, Nutrition et E?nerge?tique; De?partement de Biologie; Universite? de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, Que. J1K 2R1, Canada; email: d.thomas@courrier.usherb.ca References: Bartholomew, G.A., (1987) Interspecific Comparison As a Tool for Ecological Physiologyln: New Directions in Ecological Physiology, pp. 11-37. , M. E. Feder, A. F. Bennet, W. W. Burggren, and R. B. Huey, eds.. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; Bartholomew, G.A., Hudson, J.W., Howell, T.R., Body temperature, oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss, and heart rate in the Poor-will (1962) Condor, 64, pp. 141-146; Blondel, J., Dervieux, A., Maistre, M., Perret, P., Feeding ecology and life history variation of the blue tit in Mediterranean deciduous and sclerophyllous habitats (1991) Oecologia, 88, pp. 9-14; Blondel, J., Dias, P.C., Perret, P., Maistre, M., Eambrechts, M.M., Selection-based biodiversity at a small spatial scale in a low-dispersing bird (1999) Science, 285, pp. 1399-1402; Blondel, J., Isenmann, P., Maistre, M., Perret, P., What are the consequences of being a downy oak (Quercus pubescens) or a holm oak (Q. ilex) for breeding blue tits (Parus caeruleus) (1992) Vegetatio., 99-100, pp. 129-136; Blondel, J., Maistre, M., Perret, P., Hurtrez-Bousse?s, S., Eambrechts, M.M., Is the small clutch size of a Corsican Blue tit population optimal? (1998) Oecologia, 117, pp. 80-89; Blondel, J., Perret, P., Maistre, M., Dias, P.C., Do harlequin mediterranean environments function as source sink for Blue Tits (Parus caeruleusi.)? (1992) Landscape Ecology, 6, pp. 213-219; Calder, W.A., Gaseous metabolism and water relations of the Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia castanotis (1964) Phys. Zool., 37, pp. 400-413; Dias, P.C., Blondel, J., Breeding time, food supply, and fitness components of Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) in Mediterranean habitats (1996) Ibis, 138, pp. 644-649; Edney, E.B., (1977) Water Balance in Land Arthropods, , Springer, New York; Harvey, P.H., Pagel, M.D., (1991) The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology, , Oxford University Press, Oxford; Hudson, J.W., Kimzey, S.E., Temperature regulation and metabolic rhythms in populations of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus (1966) Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 17, pp. 203-217; Mertens, J.A.E., Thermal conditions for successful breeding in Great Tits (Parus major E.). I. Relation of growth and development of temperature regulation in nesting Great Tits (1977) Oecologia, 28, pp. 1-29; Mertens, J.A.E., Water balance in Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) in Corsica (1988) Progress Report 1987, pp. 13-18. , Institute for Ecological Research; Nager, R.G., Wiersma, P., Physiological adjustment to heat in Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, nestlings from a Mediterranean habitat (1996) Ardea., 84, pp. 115-125; Schmidt-Nielsen, K., (1975) Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment, , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; Trost, C.H., Adaptations of Horned Larks (Eremophila alpestris) to hot environments (1972) The Auk, 89, pp. 506-527; Weast, R., (1979) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, , CRC Press, Boca Raton; Weathers, W.W., Climatic adaptation in avian standard metabolic rate (1979) Oecologia, 42, pp. 81-89; Weathers, W.W., Energetics and thermoregulation by small passerines of the humid, lowland tropics (1997) The Auk, 114, pp. 341-353; Withers, P.C., Measurements of VO2, VCO2, and evaporative water loss with a flow-through mask (1977) J. Appl. Physiol. Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol., 42, pp. 120-123; Yeager, D.P., Ultsch, G.R., Physiological regulation and conformation. A Basic program for the determination of critical points (1989) Physiol. Zool., 62, pp. 888-907. },
    ABSTRACT = { Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) are widely distributed throughout Europe, reaching the southern limit of their range on islands in the Mediterranean and in northern Africa. On Corsica, one population located at Pirio in the Fango Valley breeds roughly one month later than populations in adjacent valleys or on the continent, thus exposing nestlings to high ambient temperatures (Ta). We tested the hypothesis that nestlings and possibly adult Blue Tits at Pirio would exhibit a reduction in resting metabolic rate (MR) and an increase in thermal conductance as a physiological response to high Ta. We compared the thermoregulatory response and evaporative water loss for nestlings from Pirio in Corsica and one continental site (Vic-le-Fesq) and for adults from two Corsican (Pirio and Muro) and one continental site (La Rouvie?re). At 12-14 days of age, nestlings from Pirio showed two distinct thermoregulatory patterns. Nestlings under 8.0 g behaved as heterotherms, whereby MR was correlated only with body temperature. At body masses above 8.0 g nestlings progressively acquired the ability to regulate Tb and at masses >9.0 g they behaved as homeotherms. When considering homeothermic nestlings and adults, population of origin did not affect either thermal conductance or resting MR. For homeothermic nestlings, mass-specific resting MR (mW · g-1) was 15.5 ± 2.6 and 17.5 ± 2.5 for nestlings from Vic-le-Fesq and Pirio, respectively. For adults, mass-specific resting MR (mW ± g-1) was 17.5 ± 2.0, 17.8 ± 1.6, and 17.9 ± 1.0 for birds from Pirio, Muro, and La Rouvie?re, respectively. Although there was a weak but positive effect of Ta on evaporative water loss for homeothermic nestlings, no such trend was evident for adults over the range of Ta tested in this study. We thus find no evidence to indicate that either nestlings or adults exhibit the exponential increase in evaporative water loss associated with the non-convective regulation of Tb within the range of Ta tested (roughly ?35 °C). We conclude that there is no evidence for a specific physiological adaptation in the Pirio population. Measures of nestbox temperatures indicate that nestlings rarely experience temperatures in excess of 33 °C. We conclude that, although some years may be hot enough to impose a thermal stress, temperatures at Pirio are not high enough to consistently impose a selective pressure for physiological adaptations to heat. © by Urban & Fischer Verlag. },
    KEYWORDS = { Bird Blue tit BMR Metabolism Physiological ecology Thermoregulation },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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