DesplandNoseworthy2006

Reference

Despland, E. and Noseworthy, M. (2006) How well do specialist feeders regulate nutrient intake? Evidence from a gregarious tree-feeding caterpillar. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209(7):1301-1309.

Abstract

Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial foods consisting of different ratios of protein to digestible carbohydrate in no-choice, choice and compensatory feeding experiments. In the no-choice test, caterpillars were confined to a single food source of varying protein/carbohydrate ratio for the duration of the fourth larval stadium. Caterpillars performed best on equal-ratio and slightly protein-biased diets. Significant reductions in performance were only observed on extremely protein- or carbohydrate-biased diets. Daily consumption of the three acceptable intermediate diets was consistent with volumetric regulation, but the timing of the moult to the next instar appeared linked instead to protein intake. In the choice test, caterpillars were provided with two complementary foods, one biased toward protein and the other toward carbohydrate, for the duration of the stadium. The caterpillars fed randomly from the two food sources presented to them, except for the extremely protein-biased diet (P:C ratio of 35:7), which they avoided. The compensatory feeding experiment tested whether forest tent caterpillars deprived of either protein or digestible carbohydrate would select a food containing the deficient nutrient. Insects were conditioned on either protein-only, carbohydrate-only, protein-and-carbohydrate or no-nutrient foods, then offered a choice between protein-only and carbohydrate-only foods. Unlike previously studied generalist feeders, our caterpillars did not compensate for protein deficiency and showed only very weak evidence of compensation for carbohydrate deficiency. Forest tent caterpillars are colonial trail-laying forest folivores that are generally confined to a single host plant and hence do not experience much diversity in food nutrient ratios. We show that forest tent caterpillars do not independently regulate protein and carbohydrate intake. These findings are consistent with predictions that nutritional regulation abilities should be less important in animals with narrower diet breadths.

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@ARTICLE { DesplandNoseworthy2006,
    AUTHOR = { Despland, E. and Noseworthy, M. },
    TITLE = { How well do specialist feeders regulate nutrient intake? Evidence from a gregarious tree-feeding caterpillar },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of Experimental Biology },
    YEAR = { 2006 },
    VOLUME = { 209 },
    PAGES = { 1301-1309 },
    NUMBER = { 7 },
    NOTE = { 00220949 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 2 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: JEBIA doi: 10.1242/jeb.02130 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Despland, E.; Department of Biology; Concordia University; 7141 Sherbrooke West Montre?al, Que. H4B 1R6, Canada; email: despland@alcor.concordia.ca References: Addy, N.D., Rearing the forest tent caterpillar on an artificial diet (1969) J. Econ. Entomol., 62, pp. 270-271; Bernays, E.A., Chapman, R.F., Singer, M.S., Changes in taste receptor cell sensitivity in a polyphagous caterpillar reflect carbohydrate but not protein imbalance (2004) J. Comp. Physiol., 190 A, pp. 39-48; Berthoud, H.R., Seeley, R.J., (1999) Neural and Metabolic Control of Macronutrient Intake, , Boca Raton: CRC Press; Colasurdo, N., Despland, E., Social cues and following behavior in the forest tent caterpillar (2005) J. Insect Behav., 18, pp. 77-87; Despland, E., Simpson, S.J., Food choices of solitarious and gregarious locusts reflect cryptic and aposematic anti-predator strategies (2005) Anim. Behav., 69, pp. 471-479; Fitzgerald, T.D., (1995) The Tent Caterpillars, , Ithaca: Cornell University Press; Fortin, M., (1994) Les Stress Environnementaux: Effets Indirects Sur la Biologie et Le Comportement Alimentaire de la Livre?e des Fore?ts (Malacosoma Disstria Hbn.), , MSc thesis, Universite? du Que?bec a? Montre?al; Friedman, S., Waldbauer, G.P., Eertmoed, J.E., Naeem, M., Ghent, A.W., Blood trehalose levels have a role in the control of dietary self-selection by Heliothis zea larvae (1991) J. Insect Physiol., 37, pp. 919-928; Grisdale, D., Malacosoma disstria (1985) Handbook of Insect Rearing, Vol. II, 2, pp. 369-379. , ed. P. Singh and R. F. Moore, Amsterdam: Elsevier; Hemming, J.D.C., Lindroth, R.L., Intraspecific variation in aspen phytochemistry - Effects on performance of gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars (1995) Oecologia, 103, pp. 79-88; Hemming, J.D.C., Lindroth, R.L., Effects of light and nutrient availability on aspen: Growth, phytochemistry, and insect performance (1999) J. Chem. Ecol., 25, pp. 1687-1714; Hemming, J.D.C., Lindroth, R.L., Effects of phenolic glycosides and protein on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and forest tent caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) performance and detoxication activities (2000) Environ. Entomol., 29, pp. 1108-1115; Kukan, B., Myers, J.H., Prevalence and persistence of nuclear polyhedrosis virus in fluctuating populations of forest tent caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) in the area of Prince George, British Columbia (1997) Environ. 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Entomol., 26, pp. 183-211; Simmonds, M.S.J., Simpson, S.J., Blaney, W.M., Dietary selection behaviour in Spodoptera littoralis: The effects of conditioning diet and conditioning period on neural responsiveness and selection behaviour (1992) J. Exp. Biol., 162, pp. 73-90; Simpson, S.J., Abisgold, J., Compensation by locusts for changes in dietary nutrients: Behavioural mechanisms (1985) Physiol. Entomol., 10, pp. 443-452; Simpson, S.J., Raubenheimer, D., A multi-level analysis of feeding behaviour: The geometry of nutritional decisions (1993) Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 342, pp. 381-402; Simpson, S.J., Raubenheimer, D., The hungry locust (2000) Adv. Study Behav., 29, pp. 1-44; Simpson, S.J., Raubenheimer, D., A framework for the study of macronutrient intake in fish (2001) Aquacult. Res., 32, pp. 421-432; Simpson, S.J., Simmonds, M.S.J., Blaney, W.M., A comparison of dietary selection behaviour in larval Locusta migratoria and Spodoptera littoralis (1988) Physiol. Entomol., 13, pp. 228-238; Simpson, S.J., Simmonds, M.S.J., Blaney, W.M., Jones, J.P., Compensatory dietary selection occurs in larval Locusta migratoria but not Spodoptera littoralis after a single deficient meal during ad libitum feeding (1990) Physiol Entomol., 15, pp. 235-242; Simpson, S.J., Raubenheimer, D., Chambers, P.G., The mechanisms of nutritional homeostasis (1995) Regulatory Mechanisms in Insect Feeding, pp. 251-278. , ed. R. F. Chapman and G. de Boer, New York: Chapman and Hall; Simpson, S.J., Raubenheimer, D., Behmer, S.T., Whitworth, A., Wright, G.A., A comparison of nutritional regulation in solitarious and gregarious phase nymphs of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (2002) J. Exp. Biol., 205, pp. 121-129; Simpson, S.J., Batley, R., Raubenheimer, D., Geometric analysis of macronutrient intake in humans: The power of protein (2003) Appetite, 41, pp. 123-140; Singer, M.S., Bernays, E.A., Carrie?re, Y., The interplay between nutrient balancing and toxin dilution in foraging by a generalist insect herbivore (2002) Anim. Behav., 64, pp. 629-643; Slansky, F., Scriber, J.M., Food consumption and utilization (1985) Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 4, 4, pp. 87-163. , ed. G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, Oxford: Pergamon Press; Stockhoff, B., Ontogenetic change in dietary selection for protein and lipid by gypsy moth larvae (1993) J. Insect Physiol., 39, pp. 677-686; Telang, A., Booton, V., Chapman, R.F., Wheeler, D.E., How female caterpillars accumulate their nutrient reserves (2001) J. Insect Physiol., 47, pp. 1055-1064; Telang, A., Buck, N.A., Chapman, R.F., Wheeler, D.E., Sexual differences in postingestive processing of dietary protein and carbohydrate in caterpillars of two species (2003) Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 76, pp. 247-255; Thompson, S.N., Trehalose - The insect 'blood' sugar (2003) Adv. Insect Physiol., 31, pp. 205-285; Thompson, S.N., Redak, R.A., Interactions of dietary protein and carbohydrate determine blood sugar level and regulate nutrient selection in the insect Manduca sexta L. (2000) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1523, pp. 91-102; Thompson, S.N., Redak, R.A., Wang, L.W., Altered dietary nutrient intake maintains metabolic homeostasis in parasitized larvae of the insect Manduca sexta L. (2001) J. Exp. Biol., 204, pp. 4065-4080; Waldbauer, G.P., Cohen, R.W., Friedman, S., Self-selection of an optimal nutrient mix from defined diets by larvae of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) (1984) Physiol. Zool., 57, pp. 590-597. },
    ABSTRACT = { Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial foods consisting of different ratios of protein to digestible carbohydrate in no-choice, choice and compensatory feeding experiments. In the no-choice test, caterpillars were confined to a single food source of varying protein/carbohydrate ratio for the duration of the fourth larval stadium. Caterpillars performed best on equal-ratio and slightly protein-biased diets. Significant reductions in performance were only observed on extremely protein- or carbohydrate-biased diets. Daily consumption of the three acceptable intermediate diets was consistent with volumetric regulation, but the timing of the moult to the next instar appeared linked instead to protein intake. In the choice test, caterpillars were provided with two complementary foods, one biased toward protein and the other toward carbohydrate, for the duration of the stadium. The caterpillars fed randomly from the two food sources presented to them, except for the extremely protein-biased diet (P:C ratio of 35:7), which they avoided. The compensatory feeding experiment tested whether forest tent caterpillars deprived of either protein or digestible carbohydrate would select a food containing the deficient nutrient. Insects were conditioned on either protein-only, carbohydrate-only, protein-and-carbohydrate or no-nutrient foods, then offered a choice between protein-only and carbohydrate-only foods. Unlike previously studied generalist feeders, our caterpillars did not compensate for protein deficiency and showed only very weak evidence of compensation for carbohydrate deficiency. Forest tent caterpillars are colonial trail-laying forest folivores that are generally confined to a single host plant and hence do not experience much diversity in food nutrient ratios. We show that forest tent caterpillars do not independently regulate protein and carbohydrate intake. These findings are consistent with predictions that nutritional regulation abilities should be less important in animals with narrower diet breadths. },
    KEYWORDS = { Carbohydrate Compensatory feeding Diet breadth Dietary self-selection Feeding behaviour Lepidoptera Malacosoma disstria Nutrition Protein },
    OWNER = { racinep },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.09.07 },
}

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