DelisleLabrecqueRoyerEtAl2013

Référence

Delisle, J., Labrecque, A., Royer, L., Bernier-Cardou, M., Bauce, E., Charest, M., Larrivee, S. (2013) Impact of short-term exposure to low subzero temperatures on egg hatch in the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 149(3):206-218.

Résumé

The frequency of extreme events, such as cold spells, is expected to increase under global warming. Therefore, the ability of insects to survive rapid changes in temperature is an important aspect to investigate in current population ecology. The hemlock looper (HL), Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a defoliator of boreal balsam fir forests in eastern Canada, overwinters at the egg stage on tree trunks and branches where eggs can be exposed to very low subzero air temperatures. Using eggs from the island of Newfoundland (NL) and Quebec mainland (QC), we undertook field and laboratory experiments to determine: (1) their supercooling point (SCP) in mid-January and mid-February; (2) overwintering mortality; (3) cold tolerance to various combinations of subzero temperatures (-25, -30, -33, -35, or -37 degrees C) and exposure durations (2, 4, 8, 12, or 16h); and (4) potential causes of death at subzero temperatures above the SCP. Regardless of population or sampling date, eggs supercooled on average at -40.1 degrees C. In the field, 59% of eggs from either population that overwintered in Sainte-Foy (QC) and Corner Brook (NL) hatched successfully, whereas none did in Armagh (QC) or Epaule (QC). In the laboratory, 50% of eggs survived after 4h at -34.4 degrees C or after 14h at -32.9 degrees C. In contrast, regardless of exposure duration, >50% of eggs hatched at temperatures -33 degrees C, but <50% did so at -35 degrees C, suggesting high pre-freeze mortality. However, when eggs were attached to thermocouples and exposed to temperatures ranging from -25 to -37 degrees C for 16h, 69% froze at temperatures of -35 to -37 degrees C, but only 2% did at -25 or -30 degrees C. Time to freeze decreased as subzero temperatures declined, and this was more evident in island eggs than in mainland eggs. Overall, eggs can freeze after a brief exposure to subzero temperatures higher than the standard SCP, and are thus highly vulnerable to cold spells.

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@ARTICLE { DelisleLabrecqueRoyerEtAl2013,
    AUTHOR = { Delisle, J. and Labrecque, A. and Royer, L. and Bernier-Cardou, M. and Bauce, E. and Charest, M. and Larrivee, S. },
    TITLE = { Impact of short-term exposure to low subzero temperatures on egg hatch in the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria },
    JOURNAL = { Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata },
    YEAR = { 2013 },
    VOLUME = { 149 },
    PAGES = { 206-218 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    MONTH = { DEC },
    ABSTRACT = { The frequency of extreme events, such as cold spells, is expected to increase under global warming. Therefore, the ability of insects to survive rapid changes in temperature is an important aspect to investigate in current population ecology. The hemlock looper (HL), Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a defoliator of boreal balsam fir forests in eastern Canada, overwinters at the egg stage on tree trunks and branches where eggs can be exposed to very low subzero air temperatures. Using eggs from the island of Newfoundland (NL) and Quebec mainland (QC), we undertook field and laboratory experiments to determine: (1) their supercooling point (SCP) in mid-January and mid-February; (2) overwintering mortality; (3) cold tolerance to various combinations of subzero temperatures (-25, -30, -33, -35, or -37 degrees C) and exposure durations (2, 4, 8, 12, or 16h); and (4) potential causes of death at subzero temperatures above the SCP. Regardless of population or sampling date, eggs supercooled on average at -40.1 degrees C. In the field, 59% of eggs from either population that overwintered in Sainte-Foy (QC) and Corner Brook (NL) hatched successfully, whereas none did in Armagh (QC) or Epaule (QC). In the laboratory, 50% of eggs survived after 4h at -34.4 degrees C or after 14h at -32.9 degrees C. In contrast, regardless of exposure duration, >50% of eggs hatched at temperatures -33 degrees C, but <50% did so at -35 degrees C, suggesting high pre-freeze mortality. However, when eggs were attached to thermocouples and exposed to temperatures ranging from -25 to -37 degrees C for 16h, 69% froze at temperatures of -35 to -37 degrees C, but only 2% did at -25 or -30 degrees C. Time to freeze decreased as subzero temperatures declined, and this was more evident in island eggs than in mainland eggs. Overall, eggs can freeze after a brief exposure to subzero temperatures higher than the standard SCP, and are thus highly vulnerable to cold spells. },
    ADDRESS = { 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA },
    AFFILIATION = { Delisle, J (Reprint Author), Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Canadian Forestry Serv, Nat Resources Canada, Stn St Foy, 1055 PEPS,POB 10380, Quebec City, PQ G1V 4C7, Canada. Delisle, Johanne; Labrecque, Alain; Royer, Lucie; Bernier-Cardou, Michele, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Canadian Forestry Serv, Nat Resources Canada, Stn St Foy, Quebec City, PQ G1V 4C7, Canada. Bauce, Eric; Charest, Martin, Univ Laval, Dept Sci Bois \& Foret, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada. Larrivee, Sandra, Ctr Rech CHUM, Montreal, PQ H2W 1V1, Canada. },
    AUTHOR-EMAIL = { jdelisle@nrcan.gc },
    DOC-DELIVERY-NUMBER = { 250HZ },
    DOI = { 10.1111/eea.12123 },
    FUNDING-ACKNOWLEDGEMENT = { Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada; iFor research consortium-Universite Laval },
    FUNDING-TEXT = { We would like to acknowledge Dr. PG Fields and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on an earlier version of the manuscript, and Ms. I Lamarre for her helpful editorial assistance. This research was supported by the Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada and the iFor research consortium-Universite Laval. },
    ISSN = { 0013-8703 },
    JOURNAL-ISO = { Entomol. Exp. Appl. },
    KEYWORDS = { balsam fir; cold spells; cold tolerance; freezing or cold-stress injuries; global warming; Geometridae; Lepidoptera; SCP; overwintering egg mortality },
    KEYWORDS-PLUS = { {INSECT COLD-HARDINESS; FLUCTUATING THERMAL REGIMES; SUPERCOOLING CAPACITY; WINTER TEMPERATURES; EPIRRITA-AUTUMNATA; RANGE EXPANSION; PARASITIC WASP; CLIMATE-CHANGE; SURVIVAL; COLEOPTERA} },
    LANGUAGE = { English },
    NUMBER-OF-CITED-REFERENCES = { 58 },
    OWNER = { nafon9 },
    PUBLISHER = { WILEY-BLACKWELL },
    RESEARCH-AREAS = { Entomology },
    TIMES-CITED = { 0 },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2013.12.12 },
    TYPE = { Article },
    WEB-OF-SCIENCE-CATEGORIES = { Entomology },
}

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