BjorkmanVellendFreiEtAl2017

Référence

Bjorkman, A.D., Vellend, M., Frei, E.R., Henry, G.H.R. (2017) Climate adaptation is not enough: warming does not facilitate success of southern tundra plant populations in the high Arctic. Global Change Biology, 23(4):1540-1551. (Scopus )

Résumé

Rapidly rising temperatures are expected to cause latitudinal and elevational range shifts as species track their optimal climate north and upward. However, a lack of adaptation to environmental conditions other than climate – for example photoperiod, biotic interactions, or edaphic conditions – might limit the success of immigrants in a new location despite hospitable climatic conditions. Here, we present one of the first direct experimental tests of the hypothesis that warmer temperatures at northern latitudes will confer a fitness advantage to southern immigrants relative to native populations. As rates of warming in the Arctic are more than double the global average, understanding the impacts of warming in Arctic ecosystems is especially urgent. We established experimentally warmed and nonwarmed common garden plots at Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic with seeds of two forb species (Oxyria digyna and Papaver radicatum) originating from three to five populations at different latitudes across the Arctic. We found that plants from the local populations generally had higher survival and obtained a greater maximum size than foreign individuals, regardless of warming treatment. Phenological traits varied with latitude of the source population, such that southern populations demonstrated substantially delayed leaf-out and senescence relative to northern populations. Our results suggest that environmental conditions other than temperature may influence the ability of foreign populations and species to establish at more northerly latitudes as the climate warms, potentially leading to lags in northward range shifts for some species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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@ARTICLE { BjorkmanVellendFreiEtAl2017,
    AUTHOR = { Bjorkman, A.D. and Vellend, M. and Frei, E.R. and Henry, G.H.R. },
    TITLE = { Climate adaptation is not enough: warming does not facilitate success of southern tundra plant populations in the high Arctic },
    JOURNAL = { Global Change Biology },
    YEAR = { 2017 },
    VOLUME = { 23 },
    NUMBER = { 4 },
    PAGES = { 1540-1551 },
    NOTE = { cited By 1 },
    ABSTRACT = { Rapidly rising temperatures are expected to cause latitudinal and elevational range shifts as species track their optimal climate north and upward. However, a lack of adaptation to environmental conditions other than climate – for example photoperiod, biotic interactions, or edaphic conditions – might limit the success of immigrants in a new location despite hospitable climatic conditions. Here, we present one of the first direct experimental tests of the hypothesis that warmer temperatures at northern latitudes will confer a fitness advantage to southern immigrants relative to native populations. As rates of warming in the Arctic are more than double the global average, understanding the impacts of warming in Arctic ecosystems is especially urgent. We established experimentally warmed and nonwarmed common garden plots at Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic with seeds of two forb species (Oxyria digyna and Papaver radicatum) originating from three to five populations at different latitudes across the Arctic. We found that plants from the local populations generally had higher survival and obtained a greater maximum size than foreign individuals, regardless of warming treatment. Phenological traits varied with latitude of the source population, such that southern populations demonstrated substantially delayed leaf-out and senescence relative to northern populations. Our results suggest that environmental conditions other than temperature may influence the ability of foreign populations and species to establish at more northerly latitudes as the climate warms, potentially leading to lags in northward range shifts for some species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd },
    AFFILIATION = { Department of Geography and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Département de Biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada },
    AUTHOR_KEYWORDS = { Arctic tundra; climate change; common garden experiment; experimental warming; latitudinal transplant experiment; local adaptation; plant phenology },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Article },
    DOI = { 10.1111/gcb.13417 },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84994300496&doi=10.1111%2fgcb.13417&partnerID=40&md5=12dd53bacb18e9b36d89cfeb4e36b8eb },
}

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