KikuzawaKoyamaUmekiEtAl1996

Référence

Kikuzawa, K., Koyama, H., Umeki, K., Lechowicz, M.J. (1996) Some evidence for an adaptive linkage between leaf phenology and shoot architecture in sapling trees. Functional Ecology, 10(2):252-257.

Résumé

1. We test an expectation regarding the phenology of leafing in sapling trees: that the inclination of the terminal shoot from the vertical in species with a flushing type leaf emergence will be greater than that of species with successive leafing. 2. A large inclination of the terminal shoot will minimize self-shading among leaves that emerge simultaneously; this may be an advantage in maximizing carbon gain. A small inclination leads to more self-shading but allows a sapling to attain a greater height within a shorter period; this may be an advantage in situations where shading by adjacent plants is a greater potential problem than self-shading. 3. We observed that the shoot inclination in Tilia japonica and Quercus crispula, which have a flushing type leaf emergence, was more than 30° in open, sunlit habitat. In contrast, the shoot inclinations of Betula platyphilla var japonica and Alnus hirsuta, which have successive type leaf emergence, were less than 10°. These observations suggest a functional linkage between leaf-emergence pattern and shoot inclination that can be considered adaptive if selection is maximizing carbon gain by the whole shoot over the growing season.

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@ARTICLE { KikuzawaKoyamaUmekiEtAl1996,
    AUTHOR = { Kikuzawa, K. and Koyama, H. and Umeki, K. and Lechowicz, M.J. },
    TITLE = { Some evidence for an adaptive linkage between leaf phenology and shoot architecture in sapling trees },
    JOURNAL = { Functional Ecology },
    YEAR = { 1996 },
    VOLUME = { 10 },
    PAGES = { 252-257 },
    NUMBER = { 2 },
    NOTE = { 02698463 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 18 Export Date: 26 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: FECOE Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Kikuzawa, K.; Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute Bibai, Hokkaido 079-01, Japan References: Boojh, R., Ramakrishnan, P.S., Growth strategy of trees related to successional status. I. Architecture and extension growth (1982) Forest Ecology and Management, 4, pp. 359-374; Bozzuto, L.M., Wilson, B.F., Branch angle in red maple trees (1988) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18, pp. 643-646; Chabot, B.F., Hicks, D.J., The ecology of leaf life span (1982) Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 13, pp. 229-259; Fisher, J.B., Branching patterns and angles in trees (1986) On the Economy of Plant Form and Function, pp. 493-523. , (ed. J.J. Givnish), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; Givnish, T.J., On the adaptive significance of compound leaves, with particular reference to tropical trees (1978) Tropical Trees As Living Systems, pp. 351-380. , eds P.B. Tomlinson \& M.H. Zimmermann, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; Honda, H., Description of the form of trees by the parameters of the tree-like body: Effects of the branching angle and the branch length in the shape of the tree-like body (1971) Journal of Theoretical Biology, 31, pp. 331-338; Horn, H.S., (1971) The Adaptive Geometry of Trees, , Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ; Hutchison, B.A., Matt, D.R., McMillen, R.T., Gross, L.J., Tajchman, S.J., Norman, J.M., The architecture of a deciduous forest canopy in eastern Tennessee, U.S.A (1986) Journal of Ecology, 74, pp. 635-646; Kikuzawa, K., Emergence, defoliation and longevity of alder (Alnus hirsuta Turcz) leaves in a deciduous hardwood forest stand (1978) Japanese Journal of Ecology, 28, pp. 299-306; Kikuzawa, K., Leaf survival and evolution in Betulaceae (1982) Annals of Botany, 50, pp. 345-353; Kikuzawa, K., Leaf survival of woody plants in deciduous broad-leaved forests. 1. Tall trees (1983) Canadian Journal of Botany, 61, pp. 2133-2139; Kikuzawa, K., Leaf survival of tree species in deciduous broad-leaved forests (1988) Plant Species Biology, 3, pp. 67-76; Kikuzawa, K., Ecology and evolution of phenological pattern, leaf longevity and leaf habit (1989) Evolutionary Trends in Plants, 3, pp. 105-110; Kikuzawa, K., A cost-benefit analysis of leaf habit and leaf longevity of trees and their geographical pattern (1991) American Naturalist, 138, pp. 1250-1263; Koike, T., Photosynthesis and expansion in leaves of early, mid, and late successional tree species, birch, ash, and maple (1987) Photosynthetica, 21, pp. 503-508; Koike, T., Autumn coloring, photosynthetic performance and leaf development of deciduous broad-leaved trees in relation to forest succession (1990) Tree Physiology, 7, pp. 21-32; Kozlowski, T.T., (1971) Growth and Development of Trees, 1. , Academic Press, London; Kozlowski, T.T., Kramer, P.J., Pallardy, S.G., (1991) The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants, , Academic Press, New York; Kuuluvainen, T., Pukkala, T., Simulation of within-tree and between-tree shading of direct radiation in a forest canopy: Effect of crown shape and sun elevation (1989) Ecological Modelling, 49, pp. 89-100; Lechowicz, M.J., Why do temperate deciduous trees leaf out at different times? Adaptation and ecology of forest communities (1984) American Naturalist, 124, pp. 821-842; Maruyama, K., Shoot elongation characteristics and phenological behavior of forest trees in natural beech forest (1978) Bulletin of Niigata University Forest, 11, pp. 1-30; Monsi, M., Saeki, T., U?ber den Lichtfaktor in den Pflanzengesellschaften und seine Bedeutung fu?r die Stoffproduktion (1953) Japanese Journal of Botany, 14, pp. 22-52; Niklas, K.J., (1992) Plant Biomechanics: An Engineering Approach to Plant Form and Function, , University of Chicago Press, Chicago; Sakai, S., Sympodial and monopodial branching in Acer; implications for tree architecture and adaptive significance (1990) Canadian Journal of Botany, 68, pp. 1549-1553; Shukla, R.P., Ramakirshnan, P.S., Architecture and growth strategies of tropical trees in relation to successional status (1986) Journal of Ecology, 74, pp. 33-46; Steingraeber, D.A., Heterophylly and neoformation of leaves in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) (1982) American Journal of Botany, 69, pp. 1277-1282; Takenaka, A., Effects of leaf blade narrowness and petiole length on the light capture efficiency of a shoot (1994) Ecological Research, 9, pp. 109-114. },
    ABSTRACT = { 1. We test an expectation regarding the phenology of leafing in sapling trees: that the inclination of the terminal shoot from the vertical in species with a flushing type leaf emergence will be greater than that of species with successive leafing. 2. A large inclination of the terminal shoot will minimize self-shading among leaves that emerge simultaneously; this may be an advantage in maximizing carbon gain. A small inclination leads to more self-shading but allows a sapling to attain a greater height within a shorter period; this may be an advantage in situations where shading by adjacent plants is a greater potential problem than self-shading. 3. We observed that the shoot inclination in Tilia japonica and Quercus crispula, which have a flushing type leaf emergence, was more than 30° in open, sunlit habitat. In contrast, the shoot inclinations of Betula platyphilla var japonica and Alnus hirsuta, which have successive type leaf emergence, were less than 10°. These observations suggest a functional linkage between leaf-emergence pattern and shoot inclination that can be considered adaptive if selection is maximizing carbon gain by the whole shoot over the growing season. },
    KEYWORDS = { Leaf-emergence pattern Self-shading Shoot inclination Tree architecture },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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