LiuChenZhuEtAl2015

Reference

Liu, J., Chen, H., Zhu, Q., Shen, Y., Wang, X., Wang, M., Peng, C. (2015) A novel pathway of direct methane production and emission by eukaryotes including plants, animals and fungi: An overview. Atmospheric Environment, 115:26-35. (Scopus )

Abstract

Methane (CH<inf>4</inf>) is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 28 times that of carbon dioxide (CO<inf>2</inf>). CH<inf>4</inf> is responsible for approximately 20% of the Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Knowledge of the sources of CH<inf>4</inf> is crucial due to the recent substantial interannual variability of growth rates and uncertainties regarding individual sources. The prevailing paradigm is that methanogenesis carried out by methanogenic archaea occurs primarily under strictly anaerobic conditions. However, in the past decade, studies have confirmed direct CH<inf>4</inf> release from three important kingdoms of eukaryotes-Plantae, Animalia and Fungi-even in the presence of oxygen. This novel CH<inf>4</inf> production pathway has been aptly termed "aerobic CH<inf>4</inf> production" to distinguish it from the well-known anaerobic CH<inf>4</inf> production pathway, which involves catalytic activity by methanogenic archaeal enzymes. In this review, we collated recent experimental evidence from the published literature and documented this novel pathway of direct CH<inf>4</inf> production and emission by eukaryotes. The mechanisms involved in this pathway may be related to protective strategies of eukaryotes in response to changing environmental stresses, with CH<inf>4</inf> a by-product or end-product during or at the end of the process(es) that originates from organic methyl-type compounds. Based on the existing, albeit uncertain estimates, plants seem to contribute less to the global CH<inf>4</inf> budget (3-24%) compared to previous estimates (10-37%). We still lack estimates of CH<inf>4</inf> emissions by animals and fungi. Overall, there is an urgent need to identify the precursors for this novel CH<inf>4</inf> source and improve our understanding of the mechanisms of direct CH<inf>4</inf> production and the impacts of environmental stresses. An estimate of this new CH<inf>4</inf> source, which was not considered as a CH<inf>4</inf> source by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013), could be useful for better quantitation of the global CH<inf>4</inf> budget. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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@ARTICLE { LiuChenZhuEtAl2015,
    AUTHOR = { Liu, J. and Chen, H. and Zhu, Q. and Shen, Y. and Wang, X. and Wang, M. and Peng, C. },
    TITLE = { A novel pathway of direct methane production and emission by eukaryotes including plants, animals and fungi: An overview },
    JOURNAL = { Atmospheric Environment },
    YEAR = { 2015 },
    VOLUME = { 115 },
    PAGES = { 26-35 },
    NOTE = { cited By 0 },
    ABSTRACT = { Methane (CH<inf>4</inf>) is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 28 times that of carbon dioxide (CO<inf>2</inf>). CH<inf>4</inf> is responsible for approximately 20% of the Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Knowledge of the sources of CH<inf>4</inf> is crucial due to the recent substantial interannual variability of growth rates and uncertainties regarding individual sources. The prevailing paradigm is that methanogenesis carried out by methanogenic archaea occurs primarily under strictly anaerobic conditions. However, in the past decade, studies have confirmed direct CH<inf>4</inf> release from three important kingdoms of eukaryotes-Plantae, Animalia and Fungi-even in the presence of oxygen. This novel CH<inf>4</inf> production pathway has been aptly termed "aerobic CH<inf>4</inf> production" to distinguish it from the well-known anaerobic CH<inf>4</inf> production pathway, which involves catalytic activity by methanogenic archaeal enzymes. In this review, we collated recent experimental evidence from the published literature and documented this novel pathway of direct CH<inf>4</inf> production and emission by eukaryotes. The mechanisms involved in this pathway may be related to protective strategies of eukaryotes in response to changing environmental stresses, with CH<inf>4</inf> a by-product or end-product during or at the end of the process(es) that originates from organic methyl-type compounds. Based on the existing, albeit uncertain estimates, plants seem to contribute less to the global CH<inf>4</inf> budget (3-24%) compared to previous estimates (10-37%). We still lack estimates of CH<inf>4</inf> emissions by animals and fungi. Overall, there is an urgent need to identify the precursors for this novel CH<inf>4</inf> source and improve our understanding of the mechanisms of direct CH<inf>4</inf> production and the impacts of environmental stresses. An estimate of this new CH<inf>4</inf> source, which was not considered as a CH<inf>4</inf> source by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013), could be useful for better quantitation of the global CH<inf>4</inf> budget. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. },
    AUTHOR_KEYWORDS = { Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Methane budget; Reactive oxygen species },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Review },
    DOI = { 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.019 },
    KEYWORDS = { Animals; Budget control; Carbon; Carbon dioxide; Catalyst activity; Fungi; Global warming; Greenhouse gases; Methane, Anaerobic conditions; Environmental stress; Experimental evidence; Global warming potential; Interannual variability; Intergovernmental panel on climate changes; Methanogenic archaea; Reactive oxygen species, Climate change, betaine; carnitine; cellulose; choline; lignin; methane; methionine; pectin; phosphatidylcholine; reactive oxygen metabolite, animal; carbon dioxide; environmental stress; eukaryote; fungus; global warming; greenhouse gas; growth rate; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; literature review; methane; oxygen; plant, animal; atmospheric dispersion; chemical structure; decomposition; endotoxemia; environmental stress; eukaryote; fungus; greenhouse effect; greenhouse gas; hypoxia; injury; methanogenic archaeon; nonhuman; plant; precursor; priority journal; reperfusion injury; Review; temperature; ultraviolet radiation, Animalia; Archaea; Eukaryota; Fungi; Plantae },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84930660867&partnerID=40&md5=a19a563e1188370c9942969cc5888f1a },
}

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