BradleyMartinKimmins2001

Référence

Bradley, R.L., Martin, W.L., Kimmins, J.P. (2001) Post-clearcutting chronosequence in the B.C. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone: IV. Modelling forest N dynamics and the possible role of denitrification. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 14(1):69-92.

Résumé

There is increasing interest in the use of simulation models to evaluate the sustainability of various forest management decisions. A key need in the development and use of such models is field validation of their predictions. Data from studies of a 26-year post-clearcutting chronosequence in the coastal western hemlock (CWH) zone of British Columbia, undertaken originally as an evaluation of the FORCYTE-11 and FORECAST models, were synthesized into a simple input-output model of forest floor N-storage. This model estimated forest floor N storage within 10% of field measured values in a 400-year-old Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis [Dougl.] Forbes)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla [Raf.] Sarg.) stand, and in three of four adjacent clearcuts ranging in age from 3- to 26-years. However, it overestimated forest floor N storage on the 6-year-old clearcut site by 78% (1027 kg N ha-1). There appear to be three main possible causes of this overestimate: (i) the 6-year-old site was not a valid member of the chronosequence, (ii) overestimation of forest floor N inputs, or (iii) underestimation of forest floor N outputs. The latter was considered to be the most likely, and the source of error was hypothesised to be the failure to include dentrification losses in the model. Two laboratory studies were conducted to measure the production of N2O in soils from the old forest and clearcut sites that had been amended with various substrates and placed in an atmosphere enriched with acetylene. Actual and potential in situ denitrification rates were estimated from these measurements. Actual denitrification rates increased after clearcutting but remained far too low to explain the discrepancy between the modeled and the measured forest floor N storage on the 6-year-old site. Potential denitrification rates were, however, within the range of values needed to balance the N-budget model with measured field values. Based on these measured potential rates, on a review of the factors controlling denitrification rates, and on past studies reporting high in situ rates occurring in favorable settings, it is proposed that enough presumptive evidence exists to support the theory that hotspots or hot intervals of denitrification occur during the assart flush following clearcutting, and that this may substantially reduce forest floor N storage.

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@ARTICLE { BradleyMartinKimmins2001,
    AUTHOR = { Bradley, R.L. and Martin, W.L. and Kimmins, J.P. },
    TITLE = { Post-clearcutting chronosequence in the B.C. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone: IV. Modelling forest N dynamics and the possible role of denitrification },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of Sustainable Forestry },
    YEAR = { 2001 },
    VOLUME = { 14 },
    PAGES = { 69-92 },
    NUMBER = { 1 },
    NOTE = { 10549811 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 2 Export Date: 26 April 2007 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Bradley, R.L.; De?partement de Biologie; Universite? de Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, Que?bec J1K 2R1, Canada; email: robert.bradley@courrier.usherb.ca References: Abee, A., (1973) Nutrient Cycling Under 450-Year-Old Douglas Fir Stands, , M.S. thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis; Abee, A., Lavender, D.P., Nutrient cycling in throughfall and litterfall in 450-year-old Douglas-fir stands (1972) Proc. Res. Conif. For. Ecosys. Symp. March 23-24, , Bellingham; Boddy, L.B., Watkinson, S.C., Wood decomposition, higher fungi, and their role in nutrient redistribution (1995) Can. J. Bot, 73, pp. 1377-1383; Bradley, R.L., Martin, W.L., Kimmins, J.P., Post-clearcutting chronosequence in the coastal western hemlock zone: II. Tracking the assart flush (2002) J. Sust. For, 14 (1), pp. 213-243; Campbell, G.S., (1977) An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics, , Springer-Verlag, New York; Cole, D.W., Rapp, M., Elemental cycling in forest ecosystems (1980) Dynamic Properties of Forest Ecosystems, pp. 341-409. , D.A. Reichle (ed.), IBP 23. Oxford Press; Cole, D.H., Van Miegroet, H., Chronosequences: A technique to assess ecosystem dynamics (1989) Research Strategies for Long-Term Site Productivity, Proceedings, IEA/BE A3 Workshop, pp. 5-23. , W.J. Dyck and C.A. Mees (Eds.) Seattle, WA, Aug. 1988. IEA/BE Report No.8. For. Res. Inst., New Zealand, Bull. 152; Cushon, G.H., Feller, M.C., Asymbiotic nitrogen fixation and denitrification in a mature forest in coastal British Columbia (1989) Can. J. For. Res, 19, pp. 1194-1200; D'Eliya, C., Steudler, P.A., Corwin, N., Determination of total-N in aqueous samples using persulfate digestion (1977) Limn. Oceanogr, 22, pp. 760-764; Davidson, E.A., Hart, S.C., Firestone, M.K., Internal cycling of nitrate in soils of a mature coniferous forest (1992) Ecology, 73, pp. 1148-1156; Eis, S., Root systems of older immature hemlock, cedar, and Douglas-fir (1987) Can J. For. Res, 17, pp. 1348-1354; Feller, M.C., Kimmins, J.P., Scoullar, K.A., FORCYTE-10: Calibration data and simulation of potential long-term effects of intensive forest management on site productivity, economic performance, and energy benefit/cost ratio (1983) IUFRO Symposium on Forest Site and Continuous Productivity, , R. Ballard and S.P. Gessel (eds.), Univ. Washington, Seattle, Aug. 1982; Focht, D.D., The effect of temperature, pH and aeration on the production of nitrous oxide and gaseous nitrogen-a zero order kinetic model (1974) Soil Sci, 118, pp. 173-174; Gholtz, H.L., Grier, C.C., Campbell, A.G., Brown, A.T., (1979) Equations for Estimating Biomass and Leaf Areas of Plants of the Pacific Northwest, , Res. Pap. 41. Oregon State For. Res. Lab. Publ; Grier, C.C., Milne, W.A., Regression equations for calculating component biomass of young Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes (1981) Can. J. For. Res, 11, pp. 184-187; Grier, C.C., Vogt, K.A., Keyes, M.R., Edmonds, R.L., Biomass distribution and above-and belowground production in young and mature Abies amabilis zone ecosystems of the Washington Cascades (1981) Can. J. For. Res, 11, pp. 155-167; Groffman, P.M., Howard, G., Gold, A.J., Nelson, W.M., Microbial nitrate processing in shallow groundwater in a riparian forest (1996) J. Environ, Qual, 25, pp. 1309-1316; Gundersen, P., Nitrogen deposition and the forest nitrogen cycle: Role of denitrification (1991) For. Ecol. Manag, 44, pp. 15-28; Hanson, G.C., Groffman, P.M., Gold, A.J., Denitrification in riparian wetlands receiving high and low groundwater nitrate inputs (1994) J. Environ. Qual, 23, pp. 917-922; Hart, S.C., Binkley, D., Perry, D.A., Influence of red alder on soil nitrogen transformations in two conifer forests of contrasting productivity (1997) Soil Biol. Biochem, 29, pp. 1111-1123; Hendrickson O.Q., Jr., (1981) Flux of Nitrogen and Carbon Gases in Bottomland Soils of an Agricultural Watershed, , Ph.D. diss. Univ. Georgia, Athens (Diss. Abst.r. 82-01544); Henrich, M., Haselwandter, K., Denitrifying potential and enzyme activity in a Norway spruce forest (1991) For. Ecol. Manag, 44, pp. 63-68; Ineson, P., Dutch, J., Killham, K.S., Denitrification in a Sitka spruce plantation and the effect of clear-felling (1991) For. Ecol. Manag, 44, pp. 77-92; Jurgensen, M.F., Larsen, M.J., Graham, R.T., Harvey, A.E., Nitrogen fixation in woody residue of northern Rocky Mountain conifer forests (1987) Can. J. For. Res, 17, pp. 1283-1288; Kimmins, J.P., Scientific foundations for the simulation of ecosystem function and management in FORCYTE-11 (1993) Information Report NOR-X-328, p. 88. , Forestry Canada-Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton; Kimmins, J.P., Scoullar, K.A., Seely, B., Andison, D.W., Bradley, R., Mailly, D., Tsze, K.M., FORCEEing and FORECASTing the HORIZON: Hybrid simulation modeling of forest ecosystem sustainability (1997) Empirical and Process-Based Models for Forest, Tree and Stand Growth Simulation, 21-27 September 1997, Oerias, Portugal (Edicoes Salamandra, Lisboa), , Amaro, A. and M. Tome (Eds.); Kimmins, J.P., Martin, W.L., Bradley, R.L., Post-clearcutting chronosequence in the coastal western hemlock zone: III. Sinks for mineralised or dissolved organic (2002) N.J. Sust. For, 14 (1), pp. 45-68; Korom, S.F., Natural denitrification in the saturated zone: A review (1992) Water Resour. Res, 28, pp. 1657-1668; Krumlik, G.J., (1979) Comparative Study of Nutrient Cycling in the Subalpine Mountain Hemlock Zone of British Columbia, p. 209. , Ph.D. thesis, Fac. For., U.B.C., Vancouver; Lowrance, R., Vellidis, G., Hubbard, R.K., Denitrification in a restored Riparian Forest Wetland (1995) J. Environ. Qual, 24, pp. 808-815; Mailly, D., Christanty, L., Kimmins, J.P., 'Without Bamboo, the land dies': Nutrient cycling and biogeochemistry of a Javanese bamboo talun-kebun system (1997) For. Ecol. Manag, 91, pp. 155-173; Martin, W.L., Bradley, R.L., Kimmins, J.P., Post-clearcutting chronosequence in the coastal western hemlock zone: I. Changes in forest floor mass and N storage (2002) J. Sust. For, 14 (1), pp. 1-22; Melillo, J.M., Aber, J.D., Steudler, P.A., Schimel, J.P., Denitrification potentials in a successional sequence of northern hardwood forest stands (1983) Environmental Biogeochemistry. Ecol. Bull, 35, pp. 217-228. , R. Hallberg (ed.) (Stockholm); Morris, D.M., Kimmins, J.P., Duckert, D.R., The use of soil organic matter as a criterion of the relative sustainability of forest management alternatives: A modelling approach using FORECAST (1997) For. Ecol. Manag, 94, pp. 61-78; Nelson, J., Hafer, M., (1996) SIMFOR - Version 2.91: Operations Manual, p. 37. , Of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Parkin, T.B., Simpkin, W.W., Methane as an energy source for denitrification in groundwater (1993) Agronomy Abstracts, p. 256. , ASA, Madison, WI; Payne, W.J., Influence of acetylene on microbial and enzymatic assays (1984) J. Microbiol. Methods, 2, pp. 117-133; Postma, D., Boesen, C., Kristiansen, H., Larsen, F., Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer: Water chemistry, reduction processes, and geochemical modelling (1991) Water Resour. Res, 27, pp. 2027-2045; Robertson, G.P., Vitousek, P.M., Matson, P.A., Tiedje, J.M., Denitrification in a clearcut loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in southeastern U.S (1987) Plant Soil, 97, pp. 119-129; Schimel, J.P., Firestone, M.K., Nitrogen incorporation and flow through a coniferous forest soil profile (1989) Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 53, pp. 779-784. , 1989; Stark, J.M., Hart, S.C., High rates of nitrification and nitrate turnover in undisturbed coniferous forests (1997) Nature, 385, pp. 61-64; Struwe, S., Kjoller, A., Denitrification in wet forest soil systems in situ and in slurry experiments (1991) For. Ecol. Manag, 44, pp. 41-52; Tarrant, R.F., Isaac, L.A., Chandler, R.F., Observations on litterfall and foliage content of some PNW tree species (1951) J. For, 49, pp. 914-915; Tietema, A., Bouten, W., Wartenbergh, P.E., Nitrous oxide dynamics in an oak-beech forest ecosystem in the Netherlands (1991) For. Ecol. Manag, 44, pp. 53-61; Turner, J.M., Singer, M.J., Nutrient distribution and cycling in a sub-alpine coniferous forest ecosystem (1976) J. Appl. Ecol, 13, pp. 295-301; Turvey, N.D., Smethurst, P.J., Apparent accumulation of nitrogen in soil under radiata pine: Misleading results from a chronosequence (1989) Research Strategies for Long-Term Site Productivity, Proceedings, IEA/BE A3 Workshop, pp. 39-43. , W.J. Dyck and C.A. Mees (Eds.) Seattle, WA, Aug. 1988. IEA/BE Report No. 8. For. Res. Inst., New Zealand, Bull. 152; Vermes, J.F., Myrold, D.D., Denitrification in forest soils of Oregon (1992) Can. J. For. Res, 22, pp. 504-512; Vogt, K.A., Edmonds, R.L., Grier, C.C., Piper, S.R., Seasonal changes in mycorrhizal and fibrous textured root biomass in 23- And 180-year-old Pacific silver fir stands in western Washington (1980) Can. J. For. Res, 10, pp. 523-529; Vogt, K.A., Grier, C.C., Meier, G.E., Keyes, M.R., Organic matter and nutrient dynamics in forest floors of young and mature Abies amabilis stands in western Washington as affected by fine root inputs (1983) Ecol. Monogr, 53, pp. 139-157; Vogt, K.A., Grier, C.C., Vogt, D.J., Production, turnover, and nutrient dynamics of above- And belowground detritus of world forests (1986) Adv. Ecol. Res, 15, pp. 303-365; Willison, T.W., Anderson, J.M., Denitrification potentials, controls and spatial patterns in a Norway spruce plantation (1991) For. Ecol. Manag, 44, pp. 69-76. },
    ABSTRACT = { There is increasing interest in the use of simulation models to evaluate the sustainability of various forest management decisions. A key need in the development and use of such models is field validation of their predictions. Data from studies of a 26-year post-clearcutting chronosequence in the coastal western hemlock (CWH) zone of British Columbia, undertaken originally as an evaluation of the FORCYTE-11 and FORECAST models, were synthesized into a simple input-output model of forest floor N-storage. This model estimated forest floor N storage within 10% of field measured values in a 400-year-old Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis [Dougl.] Forbes)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla [Raf.] Sarg.) stand, and in three of four adjacent clearcuts ranging in age from 3- to 26-years. However, it overestimated forest floor N storage on the 6-year-old clearcut site by 78% (1027 kg N ha-1). There appear to be three main possible causes of this overestimate: (i) the 6-year-old site was not a valid member of the chronosequence, (ii) overestimation of forest floor N inputs, or (iii) underestimation of forest floor N outputs. The latter was considered to be the most likely, and the source of error was hypothesised to be the failure to include dentrification losses in the model. Two laboratory studies were conducted to measure the production of N2O in soils from the old forest and clearcut sites that had been amended with various substrates and placed in an atmosphere enriched with acetylene. Actual and potential in situ denitrification rates were estimated from these measurements. Actual denitrification rates increased after clearcutting but remained far too low to explain the discrepancy between the modeled and the measured forest floor N storage on the 6-year-old site. Potential denitrification rates were, however, within the range of values needed to balance the N-budget model with measured field values. Based on these measured potential rates, on a review of the factors controlling denitrification rates, and on past studies reporting high in situ rates occurring in favorable settings, it is proposed that enough presumptive evidence exists to support the theory that hotspots or hot intervals of denitrification occur during the assart flush following clearcutting, and that this may substantially reduce forest floor N storage. },
    KEYWORDS = { Chronosequence Clearcutting Denitrification Forest floor N dynamics forest management Acetylene Computer simulation Denitrification Nitrogen Soils Substrates Sustainable development Field validation Forestry chronosequence clearcutting denitrification modeling nitrogen Canada },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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