BaltzerDayWalkerEtAl2021

Référence

Baltzer, J.L., Day, N.J., Walker, X.J., Greene, D.F., Mack, M.C., Alexander, H.D., Arseneault, D., Barnes, J., Bergeron, Y., Boucher, Y., Bourgeau-Chavez, L., Brown, C.D., Carriere, S., Howard, B.K., Gauthier, S., Parisien, M.-A., Reid, K.A., Rogers, B.M., Roland, C., Sirois, L., Stehn, S., Thompson, D.K., Turetsky, M.R., Veraverbeke, S., Whitman, E., Yang, J., Johnstone, J.F. (2021) Increasing fire and the decline of fire adapted black spruce in the boreal forest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(45). (Scopus )

Résumé

Intensifying wildfire activity and climate change can drive rapid forest compositional shifts. In boreal North America, black spruce shapes forest flammability and depends on fire for regeneration. This relationship has helped black spruce maintain its dominance through much of the Holocene. However, with climate change and more frequent and severe fires, shifts away from black spruce dominance to broadleaf or pine species are emerging, with implications for ecosystem functions including carbon sequestration, water and energy fluxes, and wildlife habitat. Here, we predict that such reductions in black spruce after fire may already be widespread given current trends in climate and fire. To test this, we synthesize data from 1,538 field sites across boreal North America to evaluate compositional changes in tree species following 58 recent fires (1989 to 2014). While black spruce was resilient following most fires (62%), loss of resilience was common, and spruce regeneration failed completely in 18% of 1,140 black spruce sites. In contrast, postfire regeneration never failed in forests dominated by jack pine, which also possesses an aerial seed bank, or broad-leaved trees. More complete combustion of the soil organic layer, which often occurs in better-drained landscape positions and in dryer duff, promoted compositional changes throughout boreal North America. Forests in western North America, however, were more vulnerable to change due to greater long-term climate moisture deficits. While we find considerable remaining resilience in black spruce forests, predicted increases in climate moisture deficits and fire activity will erode this resilience, pushing the system toward a tipping point that has not been crossed in several thousand years. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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@ARTICLE { BaltzerDayWalkerEtAl2021,
    AUTHOR = { Baltzer, J.L. and Day, N.J. and Walker, X.J. and Greene, D.F. and Mack, M.C. and Alexander, H.D. and Arseneault, D. and Barnes, J. and Bergeron, Y. and Boucher, Y. and Bourgeau-Chavez, L. and Brown, C.D. and Carriere, S. and Howard, B.K. and Gauthier, S. and Parisien, M.-A. and Reid, K.A. and Rogers, B.M. and Roland, C. and Sirois, L. and Stehn, S. and Thompson, D.K. and Turetsky, M.R. and Veraverbeke, S. and Whitman, E. and Yang, J. and Johnstone, J.F. },
    JOURNAL = { Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America },
    TITLE = { Increasing fire and the decline of fire adapted black spruce in the boreal forest },
    YEAR = { 2021 },
    NOTE = { cited By 0 },
    NUMBER = { 45 },
    VOLUME = { 118 },
    ABSTRACT = { Intensifying wildfire activity and climate change can drive rapid forest compositional shifts. In boreal North America, black spruce shapes forest flammability and depends on fire for regeneration. This relationship has helped black spruce maintain its dominance through much of the Holocene. However, with climate change and more frequent and severe fires, shifts away from black spruce dominance to broadleaf or pine species are emerging, with implications for ecosystem functions including carbon sequestration, water and energy fluxes, and wildlife habitat. Here, we predict that such reductions in black spruce after fire may already be widespread given current trends in climate and fire. To test this, we synthesize data from 1,538 field sites across boreal North America to evaluate compositional changes in tree species following 58 recent fires (1989 to 2014). While black spruce was resilient following most fires (62%), loss of resilience was common, and spruce regeneration failed completely in 18% of 1,140 black spruce sites. In contrast, postfire regeneration never failed in forests dominated by jack pine, which also possesses an aerial seed bank, or broad-leaved trees. More complete combustion of the soil organic layer, which often occurs in better-drained landscape positions and in dryer duff, promoted compositional changes throughout boreal North America. Forests in western North America, however, were more vulnerable to change due to greater long-term climate moisture deficits. While we find considerable remaining resilience in black spruce forests, predicted increases in climate moisture deficits and fire activity will erode this resilience, pushing the system toward a tipping point that has not been crossed in several thousand years. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. },
    AFFILIATION = { Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5, Canada; School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 6012, New Zealand; Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, United States; Forestry and Wildland Resources, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521, United States; School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, United States; Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite duQuebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, QC G5L 3A1, Canada; National Park Service, Alaska Region, Fairbanks, AK 99501, United States; Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Universite duQuebec aMontreal and Institut de Recherche sur les Forêts, Universite duQuebec en Abitibi-Temiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, QC J9X 5E4, Canada; Departement des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite duQuebec a ChicoutimiQC G7H 2B1, Canada; Michigan Tech Research Institute, Michigan Technological University, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, United States; Department of Geography, Memorial University, St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada; Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories, Yellowknife, NT X1A 2L9, Canada; Laurentian Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, Quebec City, QC G1V 4C7, Canada; Northern Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, Edmonton, AB T6H 3S5, Canada; Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, MA 02540, United States; Denali National Park and Preserve, US National Parks Service, Denali Park, AK 99755, United States; Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303, United States; Earth and Climate, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, United States; YukonU Research Centre, Yukon University, Whitehorse, YT Y1A 5G9, Canada; Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, United States },
    ART_NUMBER = { e2024872118 },
    AUTHOR_KEYWORDS = { Climate change; Ecological state change; Resilience; Tree regeneration; Wildfire },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Article },
    DOI = { 10.1073/pnas.2024872118 },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85119265281&doi=10.1073%2fpnas.2024872118&partnerID=40&md5=06a1805b3bdd8b2484642334f0833edf },
}

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